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Mechanism and regioselectivity of electrophilic aromatic nitration in solution: the validity of the transition state approach
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3832-2331
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2673-075X
2018 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential energy surfaces in gas phase and in aqueous solution for the nitration of benzene, chlorobenzene, and phenol have been elucidated with density functional theory at theM06-2X/6-311G(d,p) level combined with the polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM). Three reaction intermediates have been identified along both surfaces: the unoriented pi-complex (I), the oriented reaction complex (II), and the sigma-complex (III). In order to obtain quantitatively reliable results for positional selectivity and for modeling the expulsion of the proton, it is crucial to take solvent effects into consideration. The results are in agreement with Olah's conclusion from over 40 years ago that the transition state leading to (II) is the rate-determining step in activated cases, while it is the one leading to (III) for deactivated cases. The simplified reactivity approach of using the free energy for the formation of (III) as a model of the rate-determining transition state has previously been shown to be very successful for halogenations, but problematic for nitrations. These observations are rationalized with the geometric and energetic resemblance, and lack of resemblance respectively, between (III) and the corresponding rate determining transition state. At this level of theory, neither the sigma-complex (III) nor the reaction complex (II) can be used to accurately model the rate-determining transition state for nitrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER , 2018. Vol. 24, no 1, article id 15
Keywords [en]
Nitration, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Transition state, Regioselectivity, Quantumchemistry
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222199DOI: 10.1007/s00894-017-3561-zISI: 000422667900038Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85038842979OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-222199DiVA, id: diva2:1180347
Note

QC 20180205

Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved

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Halldin Stenlid, JoakimBrinck, Tore

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