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Train–Track–Bridge Interaction for the Analysis of Railway Bridges and Train Running Safety
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2372-5234
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, train–track–bridge interaction (TTBI) models are used to study the dynamic response of railway bridges. A TTBI model considers the dynamics of the train in addition to that of the track–bridge system. The TTBI model enables the assessment of train running safety and passenger comfort. In the bridge design stage, a moving force model is instead typically used for the train load. The main aim of this thesis is to use results from TTBI models to assess the validity of some of the Eurocode design criteria for dynamic analysis of bridges.

A 2D rigid contact TTBI model was implemented in ABAQUS (Paper II) and in MATLAB (Paper III). In Paper V, the model was further developed to account for wheel–rail contact loss. The models were applied to study various aspects of the TTBI system, including track irregularities. The 2D analysis is motivated by the assumption that the vertical bridge vibration, which is of main interest, is primarily dependent on the vertical vehicle response and vertical wheel–rail force.

The reduction in bridge response from train–bridge interaction was studied in Papers I–II with additional results in Part A of the thesis. Eurocode EN 1991-2 accounts for this reduction by an additional damping Δζ. The results show that Δζ is non-conservative for many train–bridge systems since the effect of train–bridge interaction varies with various train–bridge relations. Hence, the use of Δζ is not appropriate in the bridge design stage.

Eurocode EN 1990-A2 specifies a deck acceleration criterion for the running safety at bridges. The limit for non-ballasted bridges (5 m/s2) is related to the assumed loss of contact between the wheel and the rail at the gravitational acceleration 1 g. This assumption is studied in Paper V based on running safety indices from the wheel–rail force for bridges at the design limit for acceleration and deflection. The conclusion is that the EN 1990-A2 deck acceleration limit for non-ballasted bridges is overly conservative and that there is a potential in improving the design criterion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 59
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 186
Keywords [en]
dynamics, railway bridge, bridge deck acceleration, train–bridge interaction, vehicle model, wheel–rail force, running safety
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225117ISBN: 978-91-7729-714-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-225117DiVA, id: diva2:1194276
Public defence
2018-05-04, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180403

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Train–bridge interaction: a review and discussion of key model parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Train–bridge interaction: a review and discussion of key model parameters
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Rail Transportation, ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 147-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research in the field of train–bridge interaction is reviewed, with a particular focus on the vertical dynamic response of the bridge. The most influential system parameters are identified and discussed, providing a basis from which to establish an appropriate degree of complexity in train and track modelling. A two-level factorial experiment is presented. This is used to highlight the relative influence of train–bridge interaction in the train–bridge model, compared with variations in other key parameters. We distinguish those parameter combinations in the train–bridge system that lead to a significant reduction in bridge response due to the train–bridge interaction. The present survey fills an important gap in our existing knowledge by synthesising conclusions from the vast literature on train–bridge interaction. Moreover, the knowledge is related to the European design code’s guidelines for dynamic bridge analysis. The conclusions are summarised to give a rough guidance on modelling choices for train–bridge interaction systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
dynamics, vibration, railway bridge, moving load, train–bridge interaction, vehicle
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144842 (URN)10.1080/23248378.2014.897790 (DOI)
Note

QPC 20160620

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
2. Statistical screening of modelling alternatives in train-bridge interaction systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical screening of modelling alternatives in train-bridge interaction systems
2014 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 59, p. 693-701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of parameter variations in railway bridges subjected to train loads has been evaluated within the framework of a two-level factorial experiment. Especially, the influence of train-bridge interaction in comparison to other parameter variations is highlighted. Variations in the system parameters were introduced, corresponding to modelling alternatives considering reasonable uncertainties in a bridge design model. The dynamic effect from a passenger train set has been evaluated at, and away from, resonance in beam bridges of span lengths 6, 12, 24 and 36. m. By means of the two-level factorial design, effects from changes in a single parameter, as well as joint effects from simultaneous changes in several parameters, may be evaluated. The effect of including train-bridge interaction through a simple vehicle model as opposed to moving forces was found most distinct at resonance. The effect of the choice of load model was furthermore shown largest for the bridges of span length 24 and 36. m, where it was found more influential or comparable to the effect of other system parameter uncertainties. The high influence of the load model may well be attributed to the fact that the natural frequencies of the 24 and 36. m bridges are close to the vertical frequency of the primary suspension system of the train. The reduction of response obtained with the train-bridge interaction model are discussed in relation to bridge frequency rather than span length, and compared to the Additional Damping Method given in the European design code.

Keywords
Additional damping, Dynamic, Factorial experiment, Moving load, Railway bridge, Train-bridge interaction, Vibration
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140811 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.10.008 (DOI)000331920700060 ()2-s2.0-84890917842 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140204

Available from: 2014-02-04 Created: 2014-01-31 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
3. Train–track–bridge modelling and review of parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Train–track–bridge modelling and review of parameters
2016 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1051-1064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study gathers all necessary information to construct a model to calculate the coupled dynamic response of train–track–bridge systems. Each component of the model is presented in detail together with a review of possible sources for the parameter values, including a collection of vehicle models, a variety of track configurations and general railway bridge properties. Descriptions of the most important track irregularity representations are also included. The presented model is implemented in MATLAB and validated against a commercially available finite element package for a range of speeds, paying particular attention to a resonant speed. Finally, the potential of the described model is illustrated with two numerical studies that address interesting aspects of train and bridge dynamic responses. In particular, the effect of the presence of a vehicle on the bridge’s fundamental frequency is studied, as well as the influence of the wavelength of the rail irregularities on the dynamic effects of the bridge and the vehicle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
bridge, dynamics, frequency, irregularities, Railways, wavelength, Bridges, Dynamic response, Railroads, Vehicles, Coupled dynamic response, Finite element packages, Fundamental frequencies, Rail irregularities, Track irregularity, Finite element method
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176168 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2015.1076854 (DOI)000379180200004 ()2-s2.0-84941236162 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151106

Available from: 2015-11-06 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
4. Influence of Sleeper Passing Frequency on Short Span Bridges: Validation against Measured Results
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Sleeper Passing Frequency on Short Span Bridges: Validation against Measured Results
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The railway track, being discretely supported at each sleeper, has a varying stiffness. The periodic loading from the wheels passing the sleepers at a certain speed introduces the sleeper passing frequency. This excitation of the track is a well-known source of vibration for track embankments. However, the interaction between the sleeper passing frequency and the railway bridge vibration is not well studied. In this paper, a 2D finite element model is calibrated against measured frequency response functions from a short span portal frame bridge. The track is modelled with the rail as a beam resting on discrete spring–dashpots at each sleeper location. In replicating the measured signals from train passages, the train load is typically idealized as moving forces. For the case study bridge, the resulting bridge deck acceleration amplitudes from such a moving force analysis were significantly lower compared to the measured signal. It is shown that if the wheel mass is introduced in the model, and thus the sleeper passing frequency, the model provides results in good agreement with measured data. Thus, it is demonstrated that the bridge deck vibration can be greatly amplified if the sleeper passing frequency matches a bridge frequency. A sensitivity analysis shows that the effect of the sleeper passing frequency is sensitive to track stiffness and bridge frequency.

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221628 (URN)
Conference
First International Conference on Rail Transportation, Chengdu, China, July 10-12
Note

QCR 20180124

Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
5. Train running safety on non-ballasted bridges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Train running safety on non-ballasted bridges
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The train running safety on non-ballasted bridges is studied based on safety indices from the vertical wheel–rail forces. A 2D train–track–bridge interaction model that allows for wheel–rail contact loss is adopted for a comprehensive parametric study on high-speed passenger trains. The relation between bridge response and vehicle response is studied for more than 200 theoretical bridges in 1–3 spans. The bridge's inuence on running safety and passenger comfort is differentiated from the influence of the track irregularities. The Eurocode bridge deck acceleration limit for non-ballasted bridges is 5 m/s2 based on the assumed derailment risk at 1g from wheel–rail contact loss. This study shows that the running safety indices are not compromised for bridge accelerations up to 30 m/s2. Thus, accelerations at 1g do not in itself lead to contact loss and there is potential to enhance the Eurocode safety limits for non-ballasted bridges.

Keywords
railway bridge, slab track, deck acceleration, train–track–bridge interaction, wheel–rail force, running safety
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225112 (URN)
Note

QC 20180403

Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved

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Arvidsson Doctoral Thesis 2018(11535 kB)478 downloads
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