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Simulation Studies of Impact of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platoons on Road Traffic and Fuel Consumption
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2654-8173
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for road freight transport continues to grow with the growing economy, resulting in increased fossil fuel consumption and emissions. At the same time, the fossil fuel use needs to decrease substantially to counteract the ongoing global warming. One way to reduce fuel consumption is to utilize emerging intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies and introduce heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) platooning, i.e. HDVs driving with small inter-vehicle gaps enabled by the use of sensors and controllers. It is of importance for transport authorities and industries to investigate the effects of introducing HDV platooning. Previous studies have investigated the potential benefits, but the effects in real traffic, both for the platoons and for the surrounding vehicles, have barely been explored. To further utilize ITS and optimize the platoons, information about the traffic situation ahead can be used to optimize the vehicle trajectories for the platoons. Paper I presents a dynamic programming-based optimal speed control including information of the traffic situation ahead. The optimal control is applied to HDV platoons in a deceleration case and the potential fuel consumption reduction is evaluated by a microscopic traffic simulation study with HDV platoons driving in real traffic conditions. The effects for the surrounding traffic are also analysed. Paper II and Paper III present a simulation platform to assess the effects of HDV platooning in real traffic conditions. Through simulation studies, the potential fuel consumption reduction by adopting HDV platooning on a real highway stretch is evaluated, and the effects for the other vehicles in the network are investigated.

Abstract [sv]

Efterfrågan på godstransporter på väg fortsätter att öka i takt med den växande ekonomin, vilket resulterar i ökad förbrukning av fossila bränslen och ökade utsläpp. Samtidigt behöver användandet av fossila bränslen minska för att motverka den pågående globala uppvärmningen. Ett sätt för att minska bränsleförbrukningen är att utnyttja den teknik kring intelligenta transportsystem som är under utveckling och introducera lastbilskonvojer, det vill säga lastbilar som använder sensorer och regulatorer för att kunna köra med korta avstånd mellan sig. För transportföretag och -myndigheter är det viktigt att undersöka effekterna av att införa lastbilskonvojkörning. Tidigare studier har undersökt de möjliga fördelarna, men effekterna vid körning i trafik, både för konvojerna och för omgivande fordon, är outforskade. För att ytterligare utnyttja intelligenta transportsystem och optimera konvojerna kan information om trafiksituationen längre fram på vägen användas för att optimera konvojernas körning. Artikel I presenterar en optimal hastighetsregulator baserad på dynamisk programmering och som inkluderar information om trafiksituationen längre fram. Den optimala regulatorn appliceras på lastbilskonvojer under ett inbromsningsscenario och den potentiella minskningen i bränsleförbrukning utvärderas genom en mikroskopisk trafiksimuleringsstudie där lastbilskonvojerna kör i verkliga trafikförhållanden. Effekterna för omgivande fordon är också analyserade.Artikel II och artikel III presenterar en simuleringsplattform för att utvärdera effekterna av lastbilskonvojkörning i verkliga trafikförhållanden. Genom simuleringsstudier analyseras den potentiella bränsleförbrukningsminskningen då lastbilskonvojer körs på en verklig motorvägssträcka och effekterna för de övriga fordonen på vägen undersöks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 26
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1813
Keywords [en]
heavy-duty vehicle platooning, microscopic traffic simulation, intelligent transport systems, optimal control, longitudinal cruise control, fuel economy
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227996ISBN: 978-91-7729-777-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-227996DiVA, id: diva2:1206238
Presentation
2018-06-13, Nash/Wardrop, Teknikringen 10, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-06200J. Gust. Richert stiftelse, 2016-00295
Note

QC 20180516

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Look-ahead speed planning for heavy-duty vehicle platoons using traffic information
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Look-ahead speed planning for heavy-duty vehicle platoons using traffic information
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 22, p. 561-569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Freight transport is a fast increasing transportation mode due to the economic growth in the world. Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) have considerably greater fuel consumption, thus making them a suitable target when new policies in road transport emphasize increased energy efficiency and mitigated emission impacts. Intelligent transportation systems, based on emerging V2X communication technology, open new possibilities for developing fuel-efficient driving support functions considering real traffic information. This indicates a large potential of fuel saving and emission reduction for freight transport. This paper studies a dynamic programming-based optimal speed planning considering a maximum acceleration model for HDVs. The optimal speed control is applied for the deceleration case of HDV platoons due to received information on traffic speed reduction ahead. The control can optimize fuel consumption as well as travel time, and theoretical results for the two cases are presented. For maximal fuel saving, a microscopic traffic simulation study is performed for single HDVs and HDV platoons running in real traffic conditions. The results show a decrease in fuel consumption of more than 80% compared to simulations without applying optimal control, while the fuel consumption of other vehicles in the simulation is not significantly affected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Control Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210173 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2017.03.045 (DOI)000404633300057 ()2-s2.0-85019435576 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170628

Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PID-CONTROLLED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PLATOONS IN REAL TRAFFIC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PID-CONTROLLED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PLATOONS IN REAL TRAFFIC
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Transportation Research Board, 2017
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Control Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200653 (URN)
Conference
Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting
Projects
Kordination av tunga fordonsplatooner i vägtrafik
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-06200
Note

QC 20170201

Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
3. Heavy-duty vehicle platoons in real traffic: simulation modeling and analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heavy-duty vehicle platoons in real traffic: simulation modeling and analysis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In freight transport systems, fuel consumption can be significantly reduced by means of heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) platooning on highways. An HDV platoon refers to a group of HDVs with small intermediate distances enabled by the HDVs being equipped by sensors and controllers. It is of importance for transport authorities and industries to explore the effects on overall traffic systems by introducing HDV platooning. Although previous studies have investigated the potential benefits of HDV platooning, the control performance and effects in real traffic have barely been explored. In the present study, a simulation platform has been developed to model and analyze the effects of HDV platoons in real traffic conditions. The simulation model is based on an open-source microscopic traffic simulator, SUMO, and calibrated using data collected by a motorway control system (MCS). The current model incorporates the vehicle dynamics of HDVs in the simulation, while an HDV in a platoon is controlled by a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for its longitudinal behavior. Furthermore, the PID control parameters have been optimized for a driving cycle, according to predefined criteria, while taking vehicle dynamics and stability conditions into account. A case study has been carried out by adopting HDV platooning on a highway stretch in Sweden. The performance of the HDV platoons and effects on the other vehicles on the highway have been evaluated for different scenarios through multiple simulation runs. As a result, it is found that substantial fuel reductions have been achieved for HDVs if they form platoons in the evaluation cases. The analysis of the other vehicles shows only rather small effects when HDV platooning is implemented.

Keywords
HDV platooning, simulation modeling, longitudinal cruise control, PID control, microscopic traffic model, impacts on traffic flow
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227938 (URN)
Note

QC 20180516

Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved

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