Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Efficiency of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous bus services in trunk-and-branches networks
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6859-6408
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4106-3126
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
2019 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, article id 7648735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Automation technology is expected to change the public transport sector radically in the future. One rising issue is whether to embrace the intermediate stage of semi-autonomous buses or to wait until fully autonomous buses are available. This paper proposes a cost model of bus operations considering automation technology. The generalized cost, which is the sum of waiting, riding, operating, and capital cost, is modeled for conventional, semi-autonomous, and fully autonomous bus services on a generic trunk-and-branches network. Semi-autonomous buses achieve reduced unit operating cost through automated platooning on the corridor. The relative efficiency of the different services is studied under a range of scenarios for commercial speed, network structure, and demand distribution. Analytical and numerical results show that fully autonomous buses exhibit great potential through reduced operating and waiting costs even if the additional capital cost is high. The advantages of semi-autonomous buses are weaker and most prominent in networks with low demand along a long corridor such as interurban networks. For both automation levels a commercial speed comparable to conventional vehicles is crucial. The established criteria provide input to planners and operators for understanding the potential of automated bus services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2019. article id 7648735
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237286DOI: 10.1155/2019/7648735ISI: 000460891200001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062792951OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-237286DiVA, id: diva2:1258873
Note

QC 20181107

Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Planning and evaluation of autonomous vehicles in freight and public transport services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning and evaluation of autonomous vehicles in freight and public transport services
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The introduction of automation technology in transport systems brings both opportunities and challenges. The direct benefits of automation technology are obvious, for instance, reduced marginal driving cost, improved energy efficiency and increased safety. However, factors such as additional vehicle acquisition cost might hinder the implementation of autonomous vehicles, especially in the early stages when mass production is not realized yet. Besides, some benefits require large-scale applications or cooperation among multiple vehicles, while the low market penetration rate of autonomous vehicles may make system-specific benefits insignificant. Without proper planning and operation schemes, the advantages of automation technology can be cancelled out by its disadvantages. Given that the advantages of individual autonomous vehicles have been extensively explored, it is necessary to estimate the efficiency of transport systems involving autonomous vehicles. This thesis intends to solve the operation problem of autonomous vehicles in freight and public transport systems, focusing on system cost analysis.

In freight transport, semi-autonomous truck platooning is a promising way to reduce fuel consumption. By instructing vehicles to form groups and drive together closely, the trailing vehicles experience reduced air resistance from the leading vehicle, and thus less fuel consumption. However, in practice, freight transport companies should also take time windows and transport reliability into consideration. The study answers the questions whether platoons should be formed and how significant can the savings be, considering driving cost, predefined time windows, travel time uncertainty and fuel cost. System optimization techniques, including stochastic optimization and mixed-integer linear programming, are adopted to minimize the total cost.

In public transport, autonomous buses are assumed to save on-board crew cost, partially or fully. Similar with truck platoons, semi-autonomous buses can also form bus platoons for the purpose of eliminating the drivers from trailing buses. By contrast, fully autonomous buses are completely driverless and operates individually like conventional buses. To investigate the efficiency of autonomous buses, we compare the total cost of autonomous buses with conventional buses, where both passengers’ cost and service provider’s cost are modelled. In a general trunk-and-branches network connecting city center and suburbs, both fully autonomous bus and semi-autonomous bus systems are assessed. On a simple highly demanded corridor where demand varies during peak and off-peak hours, semi-autonomous bus platoons can be used as trains by extending its capacity in peak hours. Application of semi-autonomous vehicles are considered in traditional bus transit and BRT, by comparing with its conventional opponents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. iii-xiv, 35
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1921
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251681 (URN)978-91-7873-237-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-12, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190520

Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2277 kB)84 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 2277 kBChecksum SHA-512
1d820679ba92fbc5408c1b19179fa36bfcf116f79410215cbea603592c1e8a870a574e422b6168535ec16b654e8a7f31b2b4197b7d90036824f2e9c61b5fbca0
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Zhang, WeiJenelius, ErikBadia, Hugo

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Zhang, WeiJenelius, ErikBadia, Hugo
By organisation
Civil and Architectural Engineering
In the same journal
Journal of Advanced Transportation
Transport Systems and Logistics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 112 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 173 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf