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Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. VTI.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8057-6031
VTI.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. VTI.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4256-3034
2019 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 153, p. 30-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to excessively high noise levels is a relevant health problem in Europe and road traffic noise is the most widespread noise source. When considering cold climate countries, the available scientific literature on noise emission properties of winter tyres is still very limited. In order to contribute into filling this knowledge gap, this paper investigates the acoustical performance of different types of tyres, with focus on winter tyres, on different road surfaces, at different speeds, and with different states of wear. The results indicate that studded winter tyres have, indeed, an increased noise level at frequencies between 315 Hz and 10 kHz, having a significantly different response especially at frequencies higher than 4 kHz. The acoustical response also depends on the tyre type when comparing different road surfaces, as a result of conflicting vibrational and aerodynamic noise generation mechanisms. Additionally, the relationship between labelled and measured values was explored, however, no statistically significant relationship was found between them (and labelling is not applied for studded tyres). A frequency spectrum correction was attempted based on previous measurements on an ISO track, which reduced the difference between measured and labelled values, however, further investigation is still required to properly understand differences between label and road measurements, where the label is determined on a test track with a special, smooth surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 153, p. 30-47
Keywords [en]
Pavement, Tyre, Noise, Studs, Winter, M+S
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250570DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.03.025ISI: 000468251700004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85064087138OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-250570DiVA, id: diva2:1308098
Note

QC 20190618

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tyre/road interaction: A holistic approach to the functional requirements of road surfaces regarding noise and rolling resistance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tyre/road interaction: A holistic approach to the functional requirements of road surfaces regarding noise and rolling resistance
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increased fuel consumption, increased greenhouse gas emission, diminishing real-estate prices and increased health issues are some of  the negative effects on the climate, on the environment and on the society from tyre/road rolling resistance and noise. The first two aspects are affected by energy dissipation in the tyre/pavement contact and are related to rolling resistance. The other two aspects, real-estate property prices and health and comfort issues, are related to noise.

This thesis uses a holistic approach to analyse functional properties of the tyre/road contact interaction. It studies how measures taken for different functional properties may correlate and studies the limits in evaluation of mitigation strategies considering the precision in available measurement methods.

The investigative work included an examination of how reproducible CPX measurements are for evaluating tyre/road noise. Furthermore, the procedure for rubber hardness correction was subjected to a specific evaluation. Noise and rolling resistance measurements were performed on drums and the results were compared to on-road measurements for 50 different tyre models. Additionally, the consistency of rolling resistance measurements on roads was evaluated.

Two mitigation strategies are discussed in this thesis: (i) selection of tyres, and (ii) grinding of road surfaces. For the first strategy, more than 600 CPX and more than 500 rolling resistance measurements were carried out with 50 different tyre models to evaluate potential gain in selecting the best tyres. For the second strategy 8 road sections were ground and the effect of grinding was evaluated with respect to noise and rolling resistance.

The results indicate that when the CPX method is performed correctly, it can consistently evaluate tyre/road noise. Recommendations on how uncertainty in the CPX method can be reduced are included in the thesis. Additionally, recommendations on how the tyre rubber hardness measurements can be improved are also discussed, which is relevant not only for noise measurements but also for rolling resistance measurements.

The selection of tyres is the mitigation strategy that has the largest potential to reduce noise and rolling resistance, yet it can take time to be implemented. On the other hand, surface grinding leads to substantial noise and rolling resistance reductions and can more readily be implemented.

Noise and rolling resistance measurements on roads were compared to measurements on drums and no correlation was found. This indicates that drum results cannot be directly compared to tyre performances on roads.

Values presented on the EU tyre lables were shown to not correlate to on-road measurements; this calls for a re-examination of the tyre labelling procedures. Regarding labelling of road surfaces, results in this thesis indicate that reliable acoustical properties can be obtained with the CPX method in a reproducible way and suggests that acoustical labelling of road surfaces is feasible with a precision of 1 dB.

Abstract [sv]

Energiförluster, ökad bränsleförbrukning, sänkta fastighetspriser och ökade hälsoproblem är några av de negativa effekter på klimat, miljö och samhälle som följer av rullmotstånd och buller från vägyta/däck. De första två effekterna uppkommer eftersom det uppstår energiförluster i vägyta/däckkontakten och är kopplat till rullmotstånd. De andra två effekterna, minskade fastighetspriser och hälsoproblem, är kopplade till buller.

                           Den här avhandlingen utnyttjar ett holistiskt helhetsgrepp för att analysera funktionsegenskaper hos vägyta/däckkontakten. Den studerar hur åtgärder för olika funktionsegenskaper kan korrelera, och studerar begränsningarna i utvärderingen av olika åtgärder med utgångspunkt i precisionen hos tillgängliga mätmetoder.

                           Den experimentella delen av avhandlingen omfattar en undersökning av CPX-metodens reproducerbarhet vid mätning av vägyta/däckbuller. Dessutom undersöktes specifikt korrektionsmetoden för gummihårdhet. Buller- och rullmotståndmätningar genomfördes på trumma för 50 olika däckmodeller och jämfördes med mätningar gjorda på vägyta. Därutöver gjordes en enkel utvärdering av pålitligheten hos rullmotståndmätningar på vägytor.

                           De två åtgärdsstrategier som utvärderas i den avhandlingen är: (i) val av däck, och (ii) slipning av vägytor. För att utvärdera den första strategin genomfördes mer än 600 CPX och mer än 500 rullmotståndsmätningar med 50 olika däckmodeller för att kvantifiera potentiella vinster när man väljer de däck som har bäst prestanda. För att utvärdera den andra strategin slipades åtta vägsträckor och både buller och rullmotstånd mättes före och efter slipningen.

Resultaten visar att när CPX-metoden genomförs på ett korrekt sätt är den ett robust verktyg för att utvärdera vägyta/däckbuller. Avhandlingen inkluderar även rekommendationer om hur osäkerheter hos CPX-metoden kan minskas. Detta innebär även rekommendationer om hur man genomför gummihårdhetsmätningar för att minska osäkerheten, vilket är relevant även för rullmotståndsmätningar.

Resultaten visade att val av däck är den strategi som har potential att leda till den största förbättringen. Nackdelen är dock att det kan ta tid att implementera genom t.ex. skatteväxling eller bonus-malussystem. Slipning av vägytor, å andra sidan, kan enklare implementeras direkt av väghållaren och leder ändå till betydande buller och rullmotståndsförbättringar.

Buller- och rullmotståndsmätningar på vägyta jämfördes med mätningar på trumma utan att visa någon signifikant korrelation. Detta betyder att trummätningar inte direkt kan jämföras med hur däck presterar under verkliga förhållanden på väg.

Värden som anges via den EU-gemensamma däckmärkningen visades inte korrelera med mätningar på vägbanor, vilket pekar på behovet av en omprövning av däckmärkningsmetoden.  Utifrån den noggrannhet som CPX-metoden uppvisar skulle det också vara möjligt att införa akustisk märkning av vägbanor med en noggrannhet av 1 dB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. p. 97
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2013
Keywords
Road, surface, noise, rolling resistance, tyre, mitigation, Vägbeläggning, vägyta, textur, buller, rullmotstånd, däck
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272964 (URN)978-91-7873-536-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-05-29, Zoom Webinar -https://kth-se.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_uBAlg-W_RTKIVOsq7xualw, Du som saknar dator/datorvana kan kontakta thoyra@kth.se för information / Use the e-mail address if you need technical assistance, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20200507

Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved

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