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Process Design Kit and High-Temperature Digital ASICs in Silicon Carbide
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electronics such as microprocessors are highly demanded to monitor or control a process or operation in temperature critical (300 ºC to 600 °C) applications. State-of-the-art silicon-based integrated circuits (ICs) have been improved significantly throughout the years but mainly for a low-temperature ambient. At a temperature higher than 300 ºC silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or bulk silicon-based electronics cannot operate reliably. Therefore the wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) come into play.

In recent years, many types of SiC-based devices and low complex ICs have been reported and are operational at a high temperature (HT). The main goal of the thesis is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of SiC-based circuits that are complex, dense and monolithically integrated for high-temperature applications such as a central-processing-unit (CPU).

This thesis work demonstrates a Process Design Kit (PDK) for the SiC-based large scale integrated (LSI) circuits implementation. It consists of discrete devices, gate and module library, and SiC ICs verification programs. The thesis work reports the PDK results over the full temperature range of 25 to 500 °C with a power supply of 10 V to 20 V.

The thesis work demonstrates a 4-bit CPU architecture designed for a proposed instruction set. Manual place and route with around 10,000 devices and area of 150 mm2 were carried out using the PDK standard cell library. The CPU and integral parts have been implemented at the transistor level using the PDK gate/module library and simulated from 25 to 500 °C. The CPU has been fabricated in the in-house low-power SiC bipolar process and measured at a high temperature.

The thesis work also reports reference analog and mixed-signal ICs. A 555-timer consisting of both digital and analog circuits has been designed, integrated and characterized up to 500 °C. Flash and SAR ADCs have been implemented using the PDK for HT applications. A 256-pixel image-sensor design and layout were also carried out using the PDK.

This thesis work is an important step and has laid the foundation of SiC-based LSI circuits realization for extreme environment applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. vii-xix, 148
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:53
Keywords [en]
Silicon Carbide, high-temperature digital integrated circuits, process design kit (PDK), bipolar logic gates, transistor-transistor logic (TTL), TTL CPU, bipolar transistor, LSI Circuits, ASICs
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251766ISBN: 978-91-7873-225-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-251766DiVA, id: diva2:1317122
Public defence
2019-06-14, Sal-B, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20190521

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrical characterization of integrated 2-input TTL NAND Gate at elevated temperature, fabricated in bipolar SiC-technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical characterization of integrated 2-input TTL NAND Gate at elevated temperature, fabricated in bipolar SiC-technology
2018 (English)In: International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ICSCRM 2017, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2018, Vol. 924, p. 958-961Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work presents the design and electrical characterization of in-house-fabricated 2-input NAND gate. The monolithic bipolar 2-input NAND gate employing transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is demonstrated in 4H-SiC and operates over a wide range of temperature and supply voltage. The fabricated circuit was characterized on the wafer by using a hot-chuck probe-station from 25 °C up to 500 °C. The circuit is also characterized over a wide range of voltage supply i.e. 11 to 20 V. The output-noise margin high (NMH) and output-noise margin low (NML) are also measured over a wide range of temperatures and supply voltages using voltage transfer characteristics (VTC). The transient response was measured by applying two square waves of, 5 kHz and 10 kHz. It is demonstrated that the dynamic parameters of the circuit are temperature dependent. The 2-input TTL NAND gate consumes 20 mW at 500 °C and 15 V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2018
Series
Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476 ; 924
Keywords
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), Bipolar SiC NAND gate, Digital gate, High temperature integrated circuits (ICs), SiC ICs, Transistor-transistor logic (TTL), TTL NAND gate
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238378 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.924.958 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049001714 (Scopus ID)9783035711455 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ICSCRM 2017, Columbia, United States, 17 September 2017 through 22 September 2017
Note

QC 20181101

Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
2. A 600 degrees C TTL-Based 11-Stage Ring Oscillator in Bipolar Silicon Carbide Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 600 degrees C TTL-Based 11-Stage Ring Oscillator in Bipolar Silicon Carbide Technology
Show others...
2018 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1540-1543Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ring oscillators (ROs) are used to study the high-temperature characteristics of an in-house silicon carbide (SiC) technology. Design and successful operation of the in-house-fabricated 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and TTL inverter-based 11-stage RO are reported from 25 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Non-monotonous temperature dependence was observed for the oscillator frequency; in the range of 25 degrees C to 300 degrees C, it increased with the temperature (1.33 MHz at 300 degrees C and V-CC = 15 V), while it decreased in the range of 300 degrees C-600 degrees C. The oscillator output frequency and delay were also characterized over a wide range of supply voltage (10 to 20 V). The noise margins of the TTL inverter were also measured; noise margin low (NML) decreases with the temperature, whereas noise margin high (NMH) increases with the temperature. The measured power-delay product (P-D . T-P) of the TTL inverter and 11-stage RO was approximate to 4.5 and approximate to 285 nJ, respectively, at V-CC= 15 V. Reliability testing indicated that the RO frequency of oscillation decreased 16% after HT characterization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Ring oscillator, TTL gates, Bipolar SiC gates, high temperature digital integrated circuits (ICs), transistor-transistor logic, silicon carbide electronics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237111 (URN)10.1109/LED.2018.2864338 (DOI)000446449300014 ()2-s2.0-85050029554 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181120

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. A Monolithic 500 °C D-flip flop Realized in Bipolar 4H-SiC TTL technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Monolithic 500 °C D-flip flop Realized in Bipolar 4H-SiC TTL technology
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Keywords
TTL-based DFF, Bipolar SiC integrated circuits, High-temperature integrated circuits (ICs), Transistor-transistor logic (TTL), Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), Digital gates
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251764 (URN)
Conference
Materials Science Forum, Proceedings of European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2018
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
4. Towards Silicon Carbide VLSI Circuits for Extreme Environment Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Silicon Carbide VLSI Circuits for Extreme Environment Applications
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 5Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A Process Design Kit (PDK) has been developed to realize complex integrated circuits in Silicon Carbide (SiC) bipolar low-power technology. The PDK development process included basic device modeling, and design of gate library and parameterized cells. A transistor–transistor logic (TTL)-based PDK gate library design will also be discussed with delay, power, noise margin, and fan-out as main design criterion to tolerate the threshold voltage shift, beta (β) and collector current (IC) variation of SiC devices as temperature increases. The PDK-based complex digital ICsdesign flow based on layout, physical verification, and in-house fabrication process will also be demonstrated. Both combinational and sequential circuits have been designed, such as a 720-device ALU and a 520-device 4 bit counter. All the integrated circuits and devices are fully characterized up to 500 °C. The inverter and a D-type flip-flop (DFF) are characterized as benchmark standard cells. The proposed work is a key step towards SiC-based very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits implementation for high-temperature applications.

Keywords
Process Design Kit (PDK); bipolar logic gates; high temperature digital integrated circuits (ICs); transistor–transistor logic (TTL); SiC bipolar transistor; SiC VLSI Circuits
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248424 (URN)10.3390/electronics8050496 (DOI)000470999900027 ()2-s2.0-85067024612 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Working on Venus
Note

QC 20190410

Available from: 2019-04-08 Created: 2019-04-08 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
5. 555-Timer IC Operational at 500 °C
Open this publication in new window or tab >>555-Timer IC Operational at 500 °C
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Bipolar SiC 555-timer IC, High Temperature ICs, TTL Comparator, SiC Integrated CircuitsArticle in journal (Other academic) [Artistic work] Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper reports an industry standard monolithic 555-timer circuit designed and fabricated in the in-house silicon carbide (SiC) low-voltage bipolar technology. The paper demonstrates the 555-timer ICs characterization in both astable and monostable modes of operation, with a supply voltage of 15 V over the wide temperature range of 25 to 500°C. Nonmonotonictemperature dependence was observed for the 555-timer IC frequency, rise-time, fall-time, and power dissipation.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251765 (URN)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved

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