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Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Rail On-board Crowding
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As travel demand grows in many metropolitan areas, overcrowding in public transport systems has become a major issue. Crowding distribution can be highly uneven over station platforms and multi-car transit vehicles. This implies that cars are not equally utilized and thus, passengers perceive on-board crowding higher. Furthermore, there are higher fleet requirements to serve the demand, leading to higher operating costs. Public transport operators' main concern is to reduce on-board crowding effects through investments. Thus, there is a need to thoroughly understand how passengers are distributed among individual cars and evaluate on-board crowding in a more realistic way, by considering that passenger distribution over vehicles is not even. 

Paper I explores the utilization of automated public transport data to analyze passengers' boarding behavior and investigate the trade-offs between crowding and walking when passengers make car boarding choices. The framework proposed in this paper is applied in a case study of a line segment of Stockholm metro network. In crowded conditions, passengers are found to make trade-offs, increase walking to avoid in-vehicle crowding, when choosing a train car. 

Paper II focuses on the extension of an existing public transit operations and assignment model, BusMezzo, to allow modelling of crowding in individual cars of a multi-car vehicle. The simulation framework is applied in a case study in Stockholm metro network, evaluating the effects of variations in demand and station layout on the distribution of passengers over vehicles. Increased demand results in a more even passenger distribution at the most crowded stations. This is due to less remaining capacity that leads to low flexibility of how passengers are distributed among train cars. The closure of a popular access point at a selected station leads to more evenly loaded trains and lower perceived in-vehicle travel times per passenger.

Abstract [sv]

I takt med att efterfrågan på resor ökar i många storstadsområden har överbelastning i kollektivtrafiksystemen blivit en viktig fråga. Trängseln kan vara ojämnt fördelad längs plattformar och i tåg med flera vagnar. Det ojämna kapacitetsutnyttjandet i tåget resulterar i att resenärer upplever större trängsel ombord. Dessutom uppstår det högre krav på fler fordon för att tillgodose efterfrågan, vilket leder till högre driftskostnader. Kollektivtrafikoperatörerernas främsta åtgärd är ofta att minska negativa trängseleffekter genom investeringar. Det finns därför ett behov av mer kostnadseffektiva åtgärder. Det kan göras genom att öka kunskaperna om hur resenärer fördelar sig mellan vagnarna och analysera trängseln ombord på ett mer realistiskt sätt genom att hänsyn tas till att resenärer fördelar sig ojämnt mellan tågetsvagnar.

Artikel I undersöker användandet av automatiskt insamlade data om kollektivtrafik för att analysera resenärers ombordstigning och undersöka avvägningarna mellan trängsel och förflyttning längs plattformen när passagerare väljer en vagn. Det föreslagna ramverket tillämpas i en fallstudie av ett linjesegment i Stockholms tunnelbanenät. Under trånga förhållandet har passagerare visat sig att välja en mindre trång vagn.

Artikel II fokuserar på utvidgning av det befintliga modellverktyget BusMezzo för att kunna modellera trängseln i varje vagn. Det utvecklade analysverktyget tillämpas i en fallstudie i Stockholms tunnelbanenät. Effekterna av passagerarvolymer och stationsutformningar på trängsel i vagnar utvärderas. Ökad efterfrågan resulterar i en jämnare fördelning av passagerare på de mest trånga stationerna. Detta beror på mindre återstående kapacitet som leder till låg flexibilitet i hur passagerare fördelas mellan vagnar. Stängningen aven populär ingångspunkt vid en utvald station leder till jämnare lastade tåg och lägre upplevda körtider per passagerare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. 21
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1938
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261661ISBN: 978-91-7873-342-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-261661DiVA, id: diva2:1359537
Presentation
2019-11-13, B24, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20191018

Available from: 2019-10-18 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: A Stockholm case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: A Stockholm case study
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

We propose a methodology based on multiple automated data sources for evaluating the effects of station layout, arriving traveler flows, and platform and on-board crowding on the distribution of boarding passengers between individual cars of metro trains. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. While train car loads at the analyzed stations are generally skewed towards the leading cars, results indicate that a crowded front car of the arriving train is associated with increasing boarding shares of the middle car. Moreover, higher platform crowding is found to have a positive effect on the boarding share of the middle cars. These findings suggest that passengers opt for less crowded train cars in crowded situations, trading-off walking and in-vehicle crowding while waiting and riding. We find that the boarding car distribution is also affected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows. These insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under varying crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice of metro car and eventually reduce experienced on-board crowding and increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions.

National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261655 (URN)
Note

QC 20191011

Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment model
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Crowding is one of the major issues of public transport systems and has many negative effects for both users and operators. Passengers can be highly unevenly distributed between individual cars of a train even when the total passenger load exceeds the practical capacity.

Transit assignment models (TAM) are widely used for describing and evaluating crowding in the vehicle. However, these models usually do not capture how passengers are distributed across the vehicle. To this end, this study introduced to an agent-based simulation model the capability to analyze the effective capacity utilization of the train, by considering passengers' distribution among individual train cars.

The developed model is validated and applied to a case study for the Stockholm metro network, evaluating three scenarios. The findings suggest that an increase in peak hour demand leads to a more even passenger distribution among individual cars upon train departure from the most crowded stops, where passengers' choices are less flexible. The closure of the most popular entrance point at Danderyds sjukhus stop, where passenger distribution is highly skewed, is found to lead to lower crowding unevenness at the specific stop but also upon departure from the downstream stops.

National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261657 (URN)
Note

QC 20191011

Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved

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Peftitsi, Soumela

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