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Hydrogeochemistry and spatial variability of arsenic and other trace elements in the Lower Katari Basin around Lake Titicaca, Bolivian Altiplano.: Impact on drinking water quality and groundwater management.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Universidad Mayor de San Andres. (KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group)
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water is a world-wide problem. Thenatural origin of As, its mobility and transport are of great interest in BolivianAltiplano (Lower Katari Basin: LKB and Sothern Poopó Basin: SPB) due topresence of mineral ore deposits, brines, hot springs and volcanic rocks.Hydrogeochemical spatio-temporal and spatial variability investigations wereapplied to groundwater, surface water and sediments with a statistical approachto better understand the spatial distribution of As, major ions and trace elements,and evaluate the sources of dissolved species and elucidate the processes thatgovern the evolution of natural water in the LKB. The result reveal high levelsof As, boron (B), antimony (Sb), manganese (Mn) and salinity in shallow wells,which exceeds the guideline values of the Bolivian regulation (NB-512) andWorld Health Organization (WHO). The seasonal variation and its impact onthe water quantity, on top of the solids and liquid residual (origin Pallina River)poses significant negative health risk for the community at the banks of theKatari River. The first evaluation of the hydrogeological study indicates that thegroundwater flow was observed in the direction southeast - northwest (SE -NW), and there is an interaction between groundwater and surface water. Thespatial distribution of As varies considerably due to geological characteristics ofthe area as well as due to the heterogeneously distributed evaporites in thesediments (in LKB and SPB). However, the highest concentrations of As arefound in the alluvial sediments of the northern region. Sequential extraction ofsediment along with geochemical modeling (mineral saturation indices) indicatesthat the iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides as well as their hydroxides are mostimportant adsorbent minerals of As in central and southern region of LKB. Thechemistry of water bodies in LKB and SPB is strongly influenced by theinteraction with the sediment constituents and by the spatial-temporal variations.The results of spatial analysis indicate that despite of the outliers there is a goodautocorrelation for As, B and Sb, since Moran's I values are positive. The globalspatial dependence analysis indicated a positive and statistically significant spatialautocorrelation (SA) for all cases and TEs are not randomly distributed at 99%confidence level.

Abstract [sv]

Arsenikförorening i dricksvatten är ett världsomfattande problem. Arsenikens(As) naturliga ursprung, dess rörlighet och transport är av stort intresse i detBolivianska Altiplano (nedre Katari-bassängen: LKB och södra Poopóbassängen:SPB) på grund av närvaron av mineral malmer, saltsjöar, varmavattenkällor och vulkaniska bergarter. Hydrogeokemiska undersökningar avrumslig och tidsmässig variabilitet tillämpades på grundvatten, ytvatten ochsediment med en statistisk metod för att bättre förstå den rumsliga förekomstenav As, stora joner och spårelement, och utvärdera källorna till upplösta ämnenoch belysa processerna som styr utvecklingen av naturligt vatten i LKB.Resultaten indikerar höga halter av As, bor (B), antimon (Sb), mangan (Mn) ochhög salthalt i grunda brunnar i det undersökta LKB, som överskrider riktvärdenaför dricksvatten i den bolivianska förordningen (NB-512) och WHO, vilket görvattnet olämpligt att dricka. Den säsongsmässiga variationen och dess påverkanpå vattenmängden utöver belastningen av fasta ämnen och avloppsvatten(Pallina-floden) medför en betydande negativ hälsoeffekt för samhällen vidKatari-floden. Den första utvärderingen av den hydrogeologiska studienindikerar att grundvattenflödet observerades i riktningen sydost - nordväst (SE- NW), vilket visas i sektorerna med interaktion mellan grundvatten och ytvatten.Den rumsliga förekomsten av As varierar avsevärt på grund av geologiskaegenskaper i området såväl som på grund av de heterogent fördeladeevaporitavlagringar i sedimenten (i LKB och SPB), men de högstakoncentrationerna av As finns i de alluviala sedimenten i norra regionen.Sekventiell extraktion av sediment tillsammans med geokemisk modellering(mineralmättnadsindex) indikerar att järn (Fe) och aluminium (Al) oxider ochhydroxider är de viktigaste mineralerna som adsorberar As i den centrala ochsödra regionen av LKB. Båda grund- och ytvattenkemin i LKB och SPBpåverkas starkt av interaktionen med sedimentbeståndsdelarna och de rumsligatemporäravariationerna. Resultaten från den rumsliga analysen indikerar atttrots outliers finns det en stark autokorrelation mellan As, B och Sb, eftersomMorans I-värdena är positiva. Den globala rumsliga beroendeanalysenindikerade en positiv och statistiskt signifikant rumslig autokorrelation (SA) föralla fall och att TEs är inte slumpmässigt fördelade på 99% konfidensnivå.Nyckelord: Arsenik, spårelement, multivariat analys, rumslig variabilitet,hydrogeologi, spatio-temporär variation, Nedre Katari-bassängen, BolivianAltiplano, alluviala sediment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. , p. 42
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2018
Keywords [en]
Arsenic, trace elements, multivariate analysis, spatial variability, hydrogeology, spatio-temporal variability, Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano, alluvial sediments
Keywords [sv]
Arsenik, spårelement, multivariat analys, rumslig variabilitet, hydrogeologi, spatio-temporär variation, Nedre Katari-bassängen, Bolivian Altiplano, alluviala sediment
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273377ISBN: 978-91-7873-563-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-273377DiVA, id: diva2:1430432
Public defence
2020-06-11, Via Zoom -- https://kth-se.zoom.us/meeting/register/u5Isf--grTguHNPDOGMrkrpy5nka38XCSnZG, Du som saknar dator/datorvana kan kontaka prosun@kth.se eller mtisl@kth.se / Use the e-mail address if you need technical assistance, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Aquatic Pollution and Remediation in the Titicaca, Uru Uru, Poopó High Altitude Lakes System
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000553
Note

QC 20200518

Available from: 2020-05-18 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Hydrochemical assessment with respect to arsenic and other trace elementsin the Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrochemical assessment with respect to arsenic and other trace elementsin the Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano
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2019 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, p. 281-293Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrochemical investigations of groundwater and surface water were carried out to better understand the spatial distribution of As, major ions and trace elements.The study was carried out to evaluate the sources of dissolved species and elucidate the processes that govern the evolution of natural water in the Lower Katari Basin.The study area is close to the Titicaca Lake (Cohana Bay) formed by sediments of the Quaternary system, deposited in the fluvio-glacial to fluvio-lacustrineenvironment and geologic formations of the Devonian and Neogene system of volcanic origin. The study area has several environmental problems mainly caused bycontaminants such as heavy metals, nutrients, and bacteria. These problems are linked to the urban and industrial wastes, natural geologic conditions, and miningactivities carried out upstream of the Katari Basin, where rivers discharge into the Cohana Bay.A total of 37 water samples were collected during wet season, 31 groundwater samples including drinking water wells and six surface water samples. Thehierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to hydrochemical data. Results show high salinity in groundwater related to theevaporation causing serious problems for the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Dissolved As concentration ranges from 0.7 to 89.7 μg/L;the principal source of As could be the alteration of volcanic rocks, more than 48% of the shallow groundwater samples exceeded the WHO guideline value for As andmore than 22% for NO3-. Groundwater has neutral to slightly alkaline pH, and moderately oxidizing character. The groundwater chemistry reveals considerablevariability, ranging from Na-SO4,Cl type through mixed Na-HCO3 type and Ca,Na-HCO3,Cl type. The distribution of trace elements shows a large range of concentrations.Speciation of As indicates that the predominant oxidation state is As (V). The geochemical modelling indicates that As could be associated with ironoxides and hydroxides which are probably the most important mineral phases for the As adsorption. The spatial distribution and the variation of dissolved Asconcentration in groundwater is governed by the variability in geological characteristics of the region that raises a significant concern about drinking water quality.

Keywords
Hydrochemistry; arsenic; trace elements; multivariate analysis; Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273372 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2018.11.013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057841090 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Aquatic Pollution and Remediation in the Titicaca, Uru Uru, Poopó High Altitude Lakes System
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000553
Note

QC 20200519

Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
2. Spatial dependency of arsenic, antimony, boron and other trace elements in the shallow groundwater systems of the Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial dependency of arsenic, antimony, boron and other trace elements in the shallow groundwater systems of the Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano
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2020 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 719, article id 137505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatial patterns, cluster or dispersion trends are statistically different from random patterns of trace elements (TEs), which are essential to recognize, e.g., how they are distributed and change their behavior in different environmental processes and/or in the polluted/contaminated areas caused by urban and industrial pollutant located in upstream basins and/or by different natural geological conditions. The present study focused on a statistical approach to obtain the spatial variability of TEs (As, B and Sb) in shallow groundwater (GW) in a high-altitude arid region (Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano), using multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA), geochemical modeling (PHREEQC, MINTEQ) and spatial analyses (Moran's 1 and LISA), considering the community supply wells. The results indicate that despite of the outliers there is a good autocorrelation in all cases, since Moran's I values are positive. The global spatial dependence analysis indicated a positive and statistically significant spatial autocorrelation (SA) for all cases and TEs are not randomly distributed at 99% confidence level. The results of hydrochemical modeling suggested the precipitation and stability of Fe (III) phases such as goethite. The re-adsorption of As and Sb on the mineral surface in the aquifer could be limiting the concentrations of both metalloids in southern regions. Spatial autocorrelation was positive (High-High) in northwestern (arsenic), southeastern (boron) and northeastern (antimony) region. The results reflected that the As and Sb are the main pollutants linked to the natural geological conditions, but B is a main pollutant due to the anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, >50% shallow groundwater exceeded the WHO limit and NB-512 guideline values for Sb (87%), B (56%) and As (50%); therefore the spatial distribution and concentrations of these TEs in GW raise a significant concern about drinking water quality in the study area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2020
Keywords
Hydrochemistry, Groundwater, Spatial variability, Lower Katari Basin, Bolivia, Trace elements
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272665 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137505 (DOI)000521936300112 ()32120110 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85080027913 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200512

Available from: 2020-05-12 Created: 2020-05-12 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
3. Geochemical mechanisms and spatio-temporal variation of the mobility of natural arsenic in shallowgroundwater and surface water in the hydrogeologic system of Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geochemical mechanisms and spatio-temporal variation of the mobility of natural arsenic in shallowgroundwater and surface water in the hydrogeologic system of Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is a world-wide problem. The natural origin of As, its mobility and transport are of great interest in Bolivian Altiplano due to its presence in mineral deposits, brines, hot springs and volcanic rocks. In this study a geochemical spatial-temporal approach was used to understand the sources and factors that control the mobilization and fate of As in water bodies as well as sediments of Lower Katari Basin (LKB). The results reveal that high levels of As, boron (B), manganese (Mn) and high salinity are present in shallow drinking water wells, which exceed the guideline values of the Bolivian regulation (NB-512) and WHO. The seasonal variation and its impact on water quantity, in addition to the load of solids and liquids of residual origin (Pallina River) represent risk of significant negative health impact for the communities at the banks of the Katari River. The first evaluation of the hydrogeological study indicates that the groundwater flow was observed in the direction southeast - northwest (SE - NW), which are showed in the sectors with interaction between groundwater and surface water. The spatial distribution of As varies considerably due to geological characteristics of the area as well as due to the heterogeneously distributed evaporites in the sediments; however, the highest concentrations of As are found in the alluvial sediments of the northern region. Sequential extraction of sediment along with geochemical modeling (mineral saturation indices) indicates that the iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides as well as their hydroxides are most important adsorbent minerals of As in central and southern region of LKB. The hydrochemistry of water bodies in LKB is strongly influenced by the interaction with the sediment constituents and by the spatial-temporal variations. Therefore, the determination of the distribution of As among the different geochemical fractions was useful to find the relative proportions of As transported by different chemical mechanisms and their spatial-temporal variation.

Keywords
Arsenic; Bolivian Altiplano; Geochemistry; Groundwater; Seasonal variation; Hydrogeology; Katari River
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273375 (URN)
Projects
Aquatic Pollution and Remediation in the Titicaca, Uru Uru, Poopó High Altitude Lakes System
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000553
Note

QC 20200518

Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
4. Hydrogeochemical contrasts in the shallow aquifer systems of the Lower Katari Basin and SouthernPoopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogeochemical contrasts in the shallow aquifer systems of the Lower Katari Basin and SouthernPoopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water sources for human consumption in regions such as the southeast of Lake Titicaca (Lower Katari Basin: LKB) and the south of Lake Poopó (Southern Poopó Basin: SPB) have high concentrations of arsenic (As) (>10 μg/L; WHO and NB-512 guideline value). These regions belong to the Bolivian Altiplano and characterized by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow, with geological formations of volcanic origin, in addition to brines and other mineral deposits. This study focuses in the comparision of the geochemical processes for the occurance of As, sources and its mobilization in groundwater (GW) in LKB and SPB. Samples of GW, surface water and sediments were collected from both the basins. The study found As (LKB: 0.8 - 288 μg/L and SPB: 2.6 - 207 μg/L), boron (B) (LKB: 96 - 2473 μg/L and SPB: 507 - 4359 μg/L), manganese (Mn) (LKB: 0.6 - 7259 μg/L) and salinity (LKB: 125 - 11740 μS/cm) are higher than the WHO guideline. The results indicate serious deterioration of GW quality that is apparently not safe for human consumption. The spatial distribution of As was observed in diverse geology of both the basins and it was heterogeneously distributed within the sediments. The highest As concentrations are found in the northern region of LKB and the PACK belt in SPB (both alluvial sediments). The dissolution and exchange of bases are the processes that govern the mineralization of GW. Whereas, sequential extraction of sediment and mineral saturation indices indicate the iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides as well as hydroxides are the most predominant mineral as potential sorbent of As. Nevertheless, solids and liquid from anthropogenic origin in surface water (LKB) are causing environmental problem for communities on the banks of river.

Keywords
Arsenic; Bolivian Altiplano; Alluvial sediments; Geochemistry; Adsorption; Groundwater
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273376 (URN)
Projects
Aquatic Pollution and Remediation in the Titicaca, Uru Uru, Poopó High Altitude Lakes System
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000553
Note

QC 20200518

Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved

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