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Simulation Studies for Improved Efficiency in Road and Rail Freight Transports
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2654-8173
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for road and rail freight transport continues to grow with the expanding economy, while the climate crisis requires reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, tools and solutions for reducing fossil fuel use and enabling more efficient use of infrastructure are needed. This thesis utilises microscopic and macroscopic traffic simulation as tools to improve certain aspects of road and rail transport planning in the operational, tactical, and strategic planning time horizons.

For road freight transports conducted with heavy-duty vehicles, fuel consumption can be reduced by smarter driving. Strategic planning concerning introduction of intelligent and connected vehicles is needed, along with planning of actual vehicle operations. Microscopic road traffic simulation is utilised to show that heavy-duty vehicle platooning, which lowers the fuel consumption through reduced aerodynamic drag, can be conducted on two-lane highway stretches without disturbing surrounding traffic. Further, substantial reduction of the fuel consumption can be achieved by applying fuel-optimal deceleration trajectories, assuming available information about the traffic situation ahead.

Shifting freight transports from roads to railways is another possible measure to reduce emissions. Previous simulation studies of railway traffic has mainly focused on passenger trains, combined with not including freight train departures before the scheduled timetable, even though it commonly occurs in Sweden. Therefore, both microscopic and macroscopic railway traffic simulation, with and without allowing early freight train departures, is conducted in a case study. The resulting freight train punctuality is closer to empirical punctuality when early departures are included.

A modal shift from road to rail transport increases capacity utilisation of railway networks, and is only possible within available capacity. Therefore, reliable methods for capacity analysis are needed. A method for capacity analysis is introduced and evaluated, with particular focus on railway station analysis. An advantage of this method is it can be used in tactical and strategic planning of future timetables and infrastructure.

Abstract [sv]

Efterfrågan på godstransporter på väg och järnväg fortsätter att öka i takt med den växande ekonomin samtidigt som den pågående klimatkrisen kräver en minskning av utsläppen av växthusgaser. Därför behövs verktyg och lösningar för att minska användandet av fossila bränslen och effektivare utnyttja infrastrukturen. Den här avhandlingen använder mikroskopisk och makroskopisk trafiksimulering som verktyg för att förbättra några olika aspekter av väg- och järnvägstransportplanering inom de operativa, taktiska och strategiska planeringshorisonterna.

För vägtransporter med lastbilar kan bränsleförbrukningen minskas genom att köra smartare. Det behövs strategisk planering som rör införandet av intelligenta och uppkopplade fordon, samt planering av de faktiska fordonsrörelserna. Mikroskopisk vägtrafiksimulering används för att visa att konvojkörning av lastbilar, vilket minskar bränsleförbrukningen genom att minska luftmotståndet, kan utföras på tvåfiliga motorvägar utan att störa den omgivande trafiken. Vidare kan avsevärd minskning av bränsleförbrukningen uppnås genom att tillämpa bränsleminimerande planerade inbromsningar, när information om trafiksituationen längre fram på vägen kan utnyttjas.

Att skifta godstransporter från väg till järnväg är en annan möjlighet för att minska utsläppen. Tidigare simuleringsstudier av tågtrafik har huvudsakligen fokuserat på persontågen, i kombination med att godstågsavgångar före tidtabellen inte har inkluderats trots att de är vanliga i Sverige. Därför utförs en fallstudie där både mikroskopisk och makroskopisk tågtrafiksimulering tillämpas, med och utan tidiga godstågsavgångar. Den resulterande godstågspunktligheten är närmare den empiriska punktligheten i det fall då tidiga godstågsavgångar inkluderas.

Att flytta över transporter från väg till järnväg ökar kapacitetsutnyttjandet i järnvägsnätet och är därför bara möjligt om det finns tillgänglig kapacitet. Därför behövs pålitliga metoder för kapacitetsanalys. En metod för kapacitetsanalys introduceras och utvärderas, med fokus på analys av järnvägsstationer. En fördel med metoden är att den kan användas inom taktisk och strategisk planering av framtida tidtabeller och infrastruktur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2021. , p. 54
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2114
Keywords [en]
heavy-duty vehicle platooning, road traffic simulation, intelligent transport systems, optimal control, longitudinal cruise control, fuel economy, railway traffic simulation, microscopic simulation, macroscopic simulation, freight trains, early departures, capacity, railway stations, strategic planning, timetable compression, UIC Code 406
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-294326ISBN: 978-91-7873-873-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-294326DiVA, id: diva2:1554753
Public defence
2021-06-10, Videolänk - https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/68027328489, Du som saknar dator /datorvana kontakta Behzad Kordnejad behzad.kordnejad@abe.kth.se / Use the e-mail address if you need technical assistance, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PlatoonSIMKapacitet i nätverk (KAIN)PLASA-2
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-06200J. Gust. Richert stiftelse, 2016-00295Swedish Transport Administration, TRV2016/88887EU, Horizon 2020, 826151
Note

QC 20210517

Available from: 2021-05-17 Created: 2021-05-17 Last updated: 2022-07-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Look-ahead speed planning for heavy-duty vehicle platoons using traffic information
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Look-ahead speed planning for heavy-duty vehicle platoons using traffic information
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 22, p. 561-569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Freight transport is a fast increasing transportation mode due to the economic growth in the world. Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) have considerably greater fuel consumption, thus making them a suitable target when new policies in road transport emphasize increased energy efficiency and mitigated emission impacts. Intelligent transportation systems, based on emerging V2X communication technology, open new possibilities for developing fuel-efficient driving support functions considering real traffic information. This indicates a large potential of fuel saving and emission reduction for freight transport. This paper studies a dynamic programming-based optimal speed planning considering a maximum acceleration model for HDVs. The optimal speed control is applied for the deceleration case of HDV platoons due to received information on traffic speed reduction ahead. The control can optimize fuel consumption as well as travel time, and theoretical results for the two cases are presented. For maximal fuel saving, a microscopic traffic simulation study is performed for single HDVs and HDV platoons running in real traffic conditions. The results show a decrease in fuel consumption of more than 80% compared to simulations without applying optimal control, while the fuel consumption of other vehicles in the simulation is not significantly affected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Control Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210173 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2017.03.045 (DOI)000404633300057 ()2-s2.0-85019435576 (Scopus ID)
Note

Not duplicate with DiVA 1069731.

QC 20170628

Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
2. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PID-CONTROLLED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PLATOONS IN REAL TRAFFIC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PID-CONTROLLED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PLATOONS IN REAL TRAFFIC
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Transportation Research Board, 2017
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Control Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200653 (URN)
Conference
Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting
Projects
Kordination av tunga fordonsplatooner i vägtrafik
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-06200
Note

QC 20170201

Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
3. Microscopic and macroscopic simulation of early freight train departures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microscopic and macroscopic simulation of early freight train departures
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden and other countries it is not an uncommon practice that freight trains depart more or less on-demand instead of strictly following a pre-planned timetable. However, the systematic effects of freight trains departing late or, in particular, early has long been a contested issue. Although some microscopic simulation tools currently have the capability to evaluate the effect of freight trains departing before schedule, it has yet not been established how macroscopic simulation tools, capable of fast simulation of nation-wide networks, can manage such tasks. This paper uses a case study on a line between two large freight yards in Sweden to investigate how the results of microscopic and macroscopic simulation, represented by two modern simulation tools, differ when it comes to this particular problem. The main findings are that both the microscopic and the macroscopic tools could replicate the empirical punctuality fairly well, with the macroscopic case study results being closer to the empirical data. Furthermore, allowing early departures of freight trains increased overall freight train punctuality without any major impact on passenger train punctuality, as determined by both tools. The results are encouraging, but further studies are needed to determine if macroscopic simulation is on-par with microscopic simulation.

Keywords
railway, simulation, microscopic, macroscopic, freight trains, early departures
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-294323 (URN)
Projects
PLASA-2
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 826151
Note

QC 20210518

Available from: 2021-05-17 Created: 2021-05-17 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
4. Extending UIC 406-based capacity analysis – New approaches for railway nodes and network effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending UIC 406-based capacity analysis – New approaches for railway nodes and network effects
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 15, p. 100199-, article id 100199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Railway capacity planning aims to determine the amount of traffic that can be operated on a given infrastructure. The timetable compression method described in UIC Code 406 has become one of the standard tools in this area. Motivated by the Swedish Transportation Administration's timetable independent adaptation of the methodology and its need for extension we explore how the compression method can be applied to evaluate the capacity of the underlying infrastructure for strategic planning rather than the occupation ratio of a specific timetable. By performing ensemble averaging of scheduled train sequences we abstract from a single timetable concept and perform a distributional analysis of timetable utilization. To mitigate decomposition-induced underestimation of network effects the compression area is extended and approaches to include interdependencies between stations and lines are investigated. The methodology is applied for capacity assessment of railway stations and line segments in a case study based on the Swedish Southern Main Line rail corridor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2020
Keywords
Capacity, Network effects, Railway stations, Simulation, Strategic planning, UIC 406 compression method, Railroads, Rails, Scheduling, Capacity analysis, Capacity assessment, Compression methods, Ensemble averaging, Railway capacity, Standard tools, Railroad transportation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-274228 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2020.100199 (DOI)000560298800004 ()2-s2.0-85083550646 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20221114

Available from: 2020-07-07 Created: 2020-07-07 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
5. Strategic assessment of railway station capacity – Further development of a UIC 406-based approach considering timetable uncertainty
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategic assessment of railway station capacity – Further development of a UIC 406-based approach considering timetable uncertainty
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Railway capacity analysis aims to assess the number of trains that can reasonably be operated on a given infrastructure. The UIC timetable compression method is a widely accepted standard for evaluating and comparing the infrastructure utilization of timetable concepts. Originally designed for capacity analysis of railway lines it has been adapted to railway stations in the second version of UIC Code 406. In this paper we discuss further developments of a statistical approach for station capacity analysis using UIC-compression methodology suited for long-term infrastructure planning. It allows to assess the capability of railway station track layouts based on a distributional analysis of different timetable variants derived from a given traffic concept. As a result, the infrastructure’s flexibility to cope with different timetable variants – which is particularly relevant for deregulated transport markets – can be tested. To better account for train-interdependencies, stations are considered in their entirety and a new time-window oriented gap-filling approach is introduced that preserves the overall timetable structure while allowing to perform local optimization of infrastructure occupation. The approach is demonstrated in a case study based on the Southern part of the Swedish railway network.

Keywords
capacity, railway stations, strategic planning, timetable compression, UIC Code 406
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems; Järnvägsgruppen - Kapacitet
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-294325 (URN)
Projects
Kapacitet i nätverk (KAIN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV2016/88887
Note

In addition to the funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), funding has been provided from KTH's funding from the Swedish government (SFO). QC 20210517

Available from: 2021-05-17 Created: 2021-05-17 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, Ingrid

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