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Evaluating Web Audio for learning, accessibility and distribution
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Department of Music Production, Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3399-8869
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4259-484X
2022 (English)In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 70, no 11, p. 962-978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Web Audio has a great potential for interactive audio content in which an open standard and easy integration with other web-based tools makes it particularly interesting. From earlier studies, obstacles for students to materialize creative ideas through programming were identified; focus shifted from artistic ambition to solving technical issues. This study builds upon 20 years of experience from teaching sound and music computing and evaluates how Web Audio contributes to the learning experience. Data was collected from different student projects through analysis of source code, reflective texts, group discussions, and online self-evaluation forms. The result indicates that Web Audio serves well as a learning platform and that an XML abstraction of the API helped the students to stay focused on the artistic output. It is also concluded that an online tool can reduce the time for getting started with Web Audio to less than 1 h. Although many obstacles have been successfully removed, the authors argue that there is still a great potential for new online tools targeting audio application development in which the accessibility and sharing features contribute to an even better learning experience. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Audio Engineering Society , 2022. Vol. 70, no 11, p. 962-978
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-317058DOI: 10.17743/jaes.2022.0031ISI: 001068184800005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85143869197OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-317058DiVA, id: diva2:1692983
Note

QC 20230329

Available from: 2022-09-05 Created: 2022-09-05 Last updated: 2024-05-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interactive Sound and Music Technology for Everyone: Designing Inclusive Standards for Web Audio Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive Sound and Music Technology for Everyone: Designing Inclusive Standards for Web Audio Applications
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this compilation thesis, I examine how systems and formats can be designed to include more people in creating interactive sound and music applications. I contribute knowledge, aiming to include everyone, but focus specifically on musicians with no programming skills and little interest in technical challenges. 

I have designed, developed, and evaluated a system – WebAudioXML (WAXML) – for implementing interactive sound and music in web pages using native web technologies. The system’s design is novel, and the work contributes knowledge about how markup language and spreadsheet concepts can describe sound and music structures. The results give insights into how high-level musical representation can be structured, named, and designed to be understood by those without prior programming experience. 

I also use WAXML to address musical diversity in interactive applications. I identify and solve technical challenges where current systems struggle to implement traditionally performed music. Novel solutions are designed, evaluated, discussed, and presented in the included papers. 

The system is finally implemented in applications aimed at education and inclusion, where I evaluate them through a series of case studies. The results confirm Web Audio as a solid platform for accessible learning, sharing, and distribution of audio applications and suggest that collective efforts shaping an ecosystem with a universal format would enable even more creators to make interactive sound and music applications. 

I research FOR the art THROUGH design. The knowledge output is valid for any interactive sound and music system but specifically addresses the design of Web Audio applications. 

Abstract [sv]

I denna sammanläggningsavhandling undersöker jag hur interaktiva system och format kan utformas för att inkludera fler personer i skapandet av inter- aktiva ljud- och musikapplikationer. Jag bidrar med kunskap med målet att inkludera alla, men fokuserar särskilt på musiker utan programmeringskunskaper och med begränsat intresse för tekniska utmaningar.

Jag har designat, utvecklat och utvärderat ett system – WebAudioXML (WAXML) – för att implementera interaktivt ljud och musik på webbsidor med hjälp av standardiserade webbtekniker. Systemet är nyskapande i sin design och arbetet bidrar med kunskap om hur markup-kod and koncept från kalkylblad kan användas för att beskriva ljud- och musikstrukturer. Resultaten ger insikter i hur musikalisk representation på en övergripande nivå kan struktureras, namnges och utformas för att bli förstådd av av dem som inte har tidigare erfarenhet av programmering.

Jag använder också WAXML som plattform för att utforska möjligheter till större musikalisk mångfald i interaktiva applikationer. Jag identifierar och löser tekniska utmaningar där nuvarande system har problem med att implementera musik som spelas enligt traditionen. Jag designar, utvärderar, diskuterar och presenterar nya lösningar i de inkluderade artiklarna.

Jag tillämpar även WAXML på applikationer avsedda för utbildning och inkludering, där jag utvärderar dem genom en serie fallstudier. Dessa bekräftar Web Audio som en stabil plattform för tillgängligt lärande, delning och distribution och pekar på att gemensamma insatser för att skapa ett ekosystem med ett universellt format skulle möjliggöra för fler att kunna skapa interaktiva ljud- och musikapplikationer.

Jag bedriver forskning FÖR konsten GENOM design. Resultatet är relevant för interaktiva ljud- och musiksystem i allmänhet och Web Audio- applikationer i synnerhet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2024. p. 69
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2024:52
Keywords
Interactive Music, Web Audio, Markup Language, Inclusion, Open Source Standards, Interaktiv musik, Web Audio, Markup-kod, Inkludering, Öppna Standarder
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346629 (URN)978-91-8040-950-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-11, https://kmh-se.zoom.us/j/62738893688?pwd=L3hQTWZqRVg3OExJenliTE1kbnhtUT09, Lilla salen, Royal College of Music, Valhallavägen105, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Royal College of Music in Stockholm
Note

QC 20240521

Available from: 2024-05-21 Created: 2024-05-21 Last updated: 2024-06-10Bibliographically approved

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Lindetorp, HansFalkenberg, Kjetil

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