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Persuasive polite robots in free-standing conversational groups
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4689-4647
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3572-6429
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2212-4325
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3086-0322
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2023), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Politeness is at the core of the common set of behavioral norms that regulate human communication and is therefore of significant interest in the design of Human-Robot Interactions. In this paper, we investigate how the politeness behaviors of a humanoid robot impact human decisions about where to join a group of two robots. We also evaluate the resulting impact on the perception of the robot's politeness. In a study involving 59 participants, the main (Pepper) robot in the group invited participants to join using six politeness behaviors derived from Brown and Levinson's politeness theory. It requests participants to join the group at the furthest side of the group which involves more effort to reach than a closer side that is also available to the participant but would ignore the request of the robot. We evaluated the robot's effectiveness in terms of persuasiveness, politeness, and clarity. We found that more direct and explicit politeness strategies derived from the theory have a higher level of success in persuading participants to join at the furthest side of the group. We also evaluated participants' adherence to social norms i.e. not walking through the center, or \textit{o-space}, of the group when joining it. Our results showed that participants tended to adhere to social norms when joining at the furthest side by not walking through the center of the group of robots, even though they were informed that the robots were fully automated. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023. p. 1-8
Keywords [en]
Social robotics, Politeness, Persuasiveness, Social norms, Human-Robot interaction, free-standing conversational groups
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338180DOI: 10.1109/IROS55552.2023.10341830ISI: 001133658803003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85182524342OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-338180DiVA, id: diva2:1805217
Conference
2023 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2023)
Note

Part of proceedings ISBN 978-1-6654-9190-7

QC 20231016

Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2024-03-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Embodying Politeness in Persuasive Humanoid Agents for Small Group Scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodying Politeness in Persuasive Humanoid Agents for Small Group Scenarios
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In both physical and virtual environments, small group interactions significantly shape our social experiences. Understanding and replicating situated group interactions with virtual agents or physical robots pose possibilities and challenges. Central to these challenges lies the critical aspect of politeness, which serves as a fundamental cornerstone in shaping our social interactions. This PhD thesis investigates the profound significance of politeness strategies in shaping social interactions within small free-standing conversational groups in physical and virtual environments with humanoid artificial agents. It particularly focuses on their adaptability to virtual characters or Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) and Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). The thesis explores the impact of these strategies on persuasiveness, adherence to social norms, and the formation of positive perceptions during interactions between participants and virtual agents or humanoid robots while joining a group of artificial humanoid agents. It involves a series of user studies with an experimental setup, which entails presenting participants with dilemmas in either a virtual or physical environment. Participants should decide between expending more effort to comply with the agent’s request or opting for a least-effort alternative to join a group while ignoring the request. Additionally, the setup evaluates participant responses to various politeness strategies expressed by virtual agents or robots when extending invitations to join a small, free-standing group. The research contributes by defining behaviors aligned with politeness strategies, revealing participant adherence to social norms even in situations requiring more effortful choices, and pinpointing optimal behaviors based on criteria such as persuasiveness, politeness, and social adherence. Ultimately, the findings provide insights into the indispensable role of politeness strategies in Human-Agent Interaction to gently influence the decisions of humans while maintaining positive relations with them. These insights pave the way for designing more effective and socially acceptable behaviors for virtual agents and robots across diverse domains.

Abstract [sv]

I både fysiska och virtuella miljöer formar små gruppinteraktioner avsevärt våra sociala upplevelser. Att förstå och replikera sammanhangsbaserade gruppinteraktioner med virtuella agenter eller fysiska robotar innebär möjligheter och utmaningar. Centralt för dessa utmaningar är den kritiska aspekten andående artighet, som fungerar som en grundläggande hörnsten i att forma våra sociala interaktioner. Denna doktorsavhandling undersöker den djupa betydelsen av artighetsstrategier för att forma sociala interaktioner inom små fristående samtalsgrupper i fysiska och virtuella miljöer med humanoida artificiella agenter. Den fokuserar särskilt på deras anpassningsförmåga till virtuella karaktärer eller Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) och Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). Avhandlingen undersöker effekten av dessa strategier på övertalningsförmåga, efterlevnad av sociala normer och bildandet av positiva uppfattningar under interaktioner mellan deltagare och virtuella agenter eller humanoida robotar samtidigt som de ansluter till en grupp artificiella humanoida agenter. Den består av en serie användarstudier med experimentupplägg, vilket innebär att deltagarna ställs inför dilemman i antingen en virtuell eller fysisk miljö. Deltagarna får välja mellan att lägga ner mer ansträngning på att följa agentens begäran eller välja ett minst ansträngningsalternativ för att ansluta till en grupp samtidigt som de ignorerar begäran. Dessutom utvärderar experimentet deltagarnas svar på olika artighetsstrategier som uttrycks av virtuella agenter eller robotar när de inbjuder till att ansluta till en små, fristående grupp. Forskningen bidrar genom att definiera beteenden i linje med artighetsstrategier, avslöja deltagarnas efterlevnad av sociala normer även i situationer som kräver mer ansträngande val, och fastställa optimala beteenden baserat på kriterier som övertalningsförmåga, artighet och social efterlevnad. Slutligen ger resultaten insikter i den oumbärliga rollen av artighetsstrategier i interaktion mellan människa och agent för att varsamt påverka människors beslut samtidigt som de bibehåller positiva relationer med dem. Dessa insikter banar väg för att utforma mer effektiva och socialt acceptabla beteenden för virtuella agenter och robotar över olika domäner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2024. p. 59
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2024:14
Keywords
politeness, persuasiveness, small free-standing conversational groups, embodiment, embodied conversational agents, humanoid robots, virtual reality, immersiveness, human-agent interaction, social norms, multimodal expressive communication, artighet, övertalningsförmåga, små fristående samtalsgrupper, förkroppsligande, förkroppsligade samtalsagenter, humanoida robotar, virtuell verklighet, uppslukande, interaktion mellan människa och agent, sociala normer, multimodal uttrycksfull kommunikation
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Media and Communication Technology Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343332 (URN)978-91-8040-833-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-03-06, https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/62065064122, Visualization Studio VIC, Lindstedtsvägen 7, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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QC 20240212

Available from: 2024-02-12 Created: 2024-02-09 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved

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Zojaji, SahbaLatupeirissa, Adrian BenignoLeite, IolandaBresin, RobertoPeters, Christopher

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