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Evaluating child helmet protection and testing standards: A study using PIPER child head models aged 1.5, 3, 6, and 18 years
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8522-4705
Mips AB, Täby, Sweden.
Mips AB, Täby, Sweden.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4798-4604
2024 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 1 January, article id e0286827Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The anatomy of children’s heads is unique and distinct from adults, with smaller and softer skulls and unfused fontanels and sutures. Despite this, most current helmet testing standards for children use the same peak linear acceleration threshold as for adults. It is unclear whether this is reasonable and otherwise what thresholds should be. To answer these questions, helmet-protected head responses for different ages are needed which is however lacking today. In this study, we apply continuously scalable PIPER child head models of 1.5, 3, and 6 years old (YO), and an upgraded 18YO to study child helmet protection under extensive linear and oblique impacts. The results of this study reveal an age-dependence trend in both global kinematics and tissue response, with younger children experiencing higher levels of acceleration and velocity, as well as increased skull stress and brain strain. These findings indicate the need for better protection for younger children, suggesting that youth helmets should have a lower linear kinematic threshold, with a preliminary value of 150g for 1.5-year-old helmets. However, the results also show a different trend in rotational kinematics, indicating that the threshold of rotational velocity for a 1.5YO is similar to that for adults. The results also support the current use of small-sized adult headforms for testing child helmets before new child headforms are available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS) , 2024. Vol. 19, no 1 January, article id e0286827
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Other Medical Engineering
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URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342384DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286827ISI: 001136266700067PubMedID: 38165876Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85181765894OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-342384DiVA, id: diva2:1828896
Note

QC 20240122

Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved

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Li, XiaogaiHalldin, Peter

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