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Light Rhythms: Exploring the Perceptual and Behavioural Effects of Daylight and Artificial Light Conditions in a Scandinavian Context
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2562-2108
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This compilation thesis collects multidisciplinary work on the study of the impact of light rhythms on perception and behaviour. The thesis was structured to answer and discuss the questions: “How does a person feel and behave inan illuminated space?” and “Do variable light conditions influence perception, appraisal and motion?”. In order to answer the questions, I applied methods from design, psychology and behavioural science, conducted literature reviews and performed two experimental studies. In response to the first question, the outcome of the five papers included in the thesis show that light and lighting rhythms elicit specific acute and long-term effects. These effects impact on these categories of aspects: visual and perceptual, appraisal and experience, behavioural and physiological. To structure and visualize these diverse aspects, I introduce the CLAPP framework: Context Light(ing) Action (behaviour), Perception, Person. The framework highlights the complex interplay between light, environment, and human response, by displaying features related to spatial and light rhythms, effects of light on mind and body, and personal features. The framework can provide structure and direction for education and research activities within the scope of Architectural Lighting Design. In response to the second research question, results from the experimental studies reveal that, even after eliminating view and sunlight, variable daylight conditions elicit better mood, higher pleasure, and influence motion, compared to artificial light conditions. The results of this thesis may contribute to achieving the UN sustainability goals, specifically to improve the well-being of the population (SDG3), to design a built-environment that is safe and resilient (SDG 11), and to promote the uses of affordable and clean energy (SDG 7). Building on the experience gained during this thesis work, I am confident that multidisciplinary collaboration will enable to integrate the diverse aspects included in the CLAPP framework, paving the way for the design of spaces that are both resilient and supportive of health.

Abstract [sv]

Denna sammanläggningsavhandling samlar tvärvetenskapligt arbete om studien av ljusrytmers inverkan på perception och beteende. Avhandlingen var strukturerad för att besvara och diskutera frågorna: “Hur känner och beter sig en person i ett upplyst rum?” och “Påverkar varierande ljusförhållanden perception, bedömning och rörelse?”. För att besvara frågorna använde jag metoder från design, psykologi och beteendevetenskap, och genomförde litteraturstudier och två experimentella studier. Som svar på den första frågan visar resultaten från de fem artiklar som ingår i avhandlingen att ljus och ljusrytmer framkallar specifika direkta och långsiktiga effekter. Dessa effekter påverkar följande kategorier av aspekter: visuella och perceptuella, bedömning och upplevelse, beteendemässiga och fysiologiska. För att strukturera och visualisera dessa olika aspekter introducerar jag ramverket CLAPP: Context Light(ing) Action (behaviour), Per-ception, Person. Ramverket belyser det komplexa samspelet mellan ljus, miljö och mänsklig respons genom att visa funktioner relaterade till rums- och ljusrytmer, effekter av ljus på sinne och kropp samt personliga egenskaper. Ramverketkan ge struktur och riktning för utbildnings- och forskningsaktiviteter inom området Architectural Lighting Design. Som svar på den andra forskningsfrågan visar resultaten från de experimentella studierna att varierande dagsljusförhållanden framkallar bättre humör och glädje, och påverkar rörelse, jämfört med artificiella ljusförhållanden, även efter att utsikt och solljus eliminerats. Resultaten av denna avhandling kan bidra till att uppnå FN:s hållbarhetsmål, särskiltatt förbättra befolkningens välbefinnande (SDG 3), att utforma en byggd miljösom är säker och motståndskraftig (SDG 11), och stödjar användningen av över-komlig och ren energi (SDG 7). Med utgångspunkt i erfarenheterna från detta examensarbete är jag övertygad om att tvärvetenskapligt samarbete kommer att göra det möjligt att integrera de olika aspekter som ingår i CLAPP-ramverket,vilket banar väg för utformningen av utrymmen som är både motståndskraftiga och stödjande för hälsa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2024. , p. 65
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2024:32
Keywords [en]
Lighting design, Context, Light, Behaviour, Perception of light, Perception of time, Associative aspects, Architecture, Daylight
National Category
Design Architecture Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344946ISBN: 978-91-8040-884-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-344946DiVA, id: diva2:1848605
Public defence
2024-04-29, https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/68660447128, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Bertil & Britt Svenssons Stiftelse för Belysningsteknik
Note

QC 20240405

Available from: 2024-04-05 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Artificial light(ing) or electric light(ing)?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artificial light(ing) or electric light(ing)?
2022 (English)In: The 8th International Light Symposium: Re-thinking Lighting Design in a Sustainable Future, Copenhagen, Denmark / [ed] IOP, Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022, Vol. 1099, p. 1-11Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Researchers and designers use the words "artificial" or "electric" to describe lighting products, design, or research related practices, and there appear to be differing opinions about which is the more appropriate term. Generally, there are challenges with a common use of language and vocabulary in interdisciplinary research and this might be also valid for design and research in lighting design across different disciplines. The authors were educated in opposing practices of using "electric" lighting vs "artificial" lighting; this started a discussion and the conceptualization of this article. The paper explores, summarizes and discusses through literature review and a survey the concepts described and conveyed by both terms in different disciplines. Interestingly we could find differences among and between disciplines and professional backgrounds. This might indicate that the education and nomenclature in the field influences the use of terms. We found a tendency to refer to light sources either in terms of the energy used to generate the light, e.g. electric light or gaslight, but also in terms of the effect that it evokes, e.g. candle light is defined natural. Generally, a common lighting glossary could be developed through continuous discussion and studies. As today's complex questions are discussed in interdisciplinary teams, a common language might promote effective communication and stimulate sustainable solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307
Keywords
perception, language, lighting vocabulary, lighting design, interdisciplinary
National Category
Architecture Design
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323109 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/1099/1/012039 (DOI)2-s2.0-85143215274 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 8th Light Symposium, Aalborg University, 21st-23rd September 2022
Note

QC 20230117

Available from: 2023-01-16 Created: 2023-01-16 Last updated: 2024-05-02Bibliographically approved
2. Vision, light and aging: A literature overview on older-age workers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vision, light and aging: A literature overview on older-age workers
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In many western countries individuals will need to continue their professional careers beyond the current retirement age. This requires adaptation of the working conditions to compensate for age related visual changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compile and structure knowledge concerning age related changes in visual and non-visual functions among older-age workers and to describe in what way these changes relate to light and work performance. METHOD: An overview of the literature was performed in PubMed and EMBASE concerning visual changes among elderly people, light, visual ergonomics and consequences at work. RESULTS: Visual conditions and lighting design have an impact on work performance in those over age 65 even if there are few studies available. Natural age related changes in the eyes or ocular diseases can result in reduced visual function and performance. Moreover, evidence of the importance of light and dark rhythms for circadian regulation is mounting; there are indications that the older-age population might need specific attention related to this issue. Finally, visual deteriorations might also, secondarily, induce strained postures and musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and injury. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in the eyes and also ocular diseases among older-age people have an impact on well-being and work performance, and therefore call for reconsideration of their working conditions. Knowledge about how visual functions, light and ocular diseases is needed for work design and preventive actions.

Keywords
Retirement age, visual function, visual perception, circadian rhythm
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144339 (URN)10.3233/WOR-141832 (DOI)000333080700013 ()24463318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84900422574 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140422

Available from: 2014-04-22 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
3. Study of the Effects of Daylighting and Artificial Lighting at 59° Latitude on Mental States, Behaviour and Perception
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the Effects of Daylighting and Artificial Lighting at 59° Latitude on Mental States, Behaviour and Perception
2023 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 1144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is a documented preference for daylighting over artificial electric lighting indoors, there are comparatively few investigations of behaviour and perception in indoor day-lit spaces at high latitudes during winter. We report a pilot study designed to examine the effects of static artificial lighting conditions (ALC) and dynamic daylighting conditions (DLC) on the behaviour and perception of two groups of participants. Each group (n = 9 for ALC and n = 8 for DLC) experienced one of the two conditions for three consecutive days, from sunrise to sunset. The main results of this study show the following: indoor light exposure in February in Stockholm can be maintained over 1000 lx only with daylight for most of the working day, a value similar to outdoor workers’ exposure in Scandinavia; these values can be over the recommended Melanopic Equivalent Daylight Illuminance threshold; and this exposure reduces sleepiness and increases amount of activity compared to a static artificial lighting condition. Mood and feeling of time passing are also affected, but we do not exactly know by which variable, either personal or group dynamics, view or variation of the lighting exposure. The small sample size does not support inferential statistics; however, these significant effects might be large enough to be of importance in practice. From a sustainability point of view, daylighting can benefit energy saving strategies and well-being, even in the Scandinavian winter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2023
Keywords
lighting design, perception of light, temporal perception, multidisciplinary approach, Scandinavian winter, sustainable environments
National Category
Architecture Design Applied Psychology
Research subject
Architecture; Art, Technology and Design; Technology and Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344943 (URN)10.3390/su15021144 (DOI)000916129300001 ()2-s2.0-85146697019 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bertil & Britt Svenssons Stiftelse för Belysningsteknik
Note

QC 20240405

Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
4. Light and Perception: Study of the Effects of Daylight and Artificial Light on Affect, Mood and Sleepiness under a Sky-Lighting Machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light and Perception: Study of the Effects of Daylight and Artificial Light on Affect, Mood and Sleepiness under a Sky-Lighting Machine
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We investigated whether light conditions have an impact on mental states, perception and perceived health symptoms in a controlled experiment. Twenty-eight participants, divided into groups of two, experienced the same room in two diffused light conditions (Daylight DL or static Artificial Light AL), which were experienced in a repeated measure design layout, controlled for order. Both light conditions offered a stimulus of at least 250 melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance (mEDI) lx, without a view. Participants were observed during different tasks, an individual reading session and a collaborative construction game session. The results show an effect of Light Condition on Mood and Pleasure, Mood was higher and Pleasure was better in the Daylight Condition. We did not find an effect of Light Condition on Arousal and on Sleepiness during the whole duration of the sessions, although results indicate lower Sleepiness in DL during the construction game session. Results indicate that the recommended mEDI levels can be maintained in a day-lit-only space during working hours (9:00 to 17:00 h) around the Equinox in Stockholm, 59°N. In the analysis limited to the DL sessions, we found that illuminance values, together with one measure of variation, are correlated to better pleasure. The current results show that the effects on Mood and Pleasure do significantly differ between Light Conditions but participants were not aware whether the source was artificial or natural. Thus we presume these effects could be even more relevant in a room with a view. 

Keywords
Lighting design, Daylight, Artificial Light, Variability, Variation, Interdisciplinary, Perception, Mood and Sleepiness, Affect
National Category
Design Psychology Architecture Media Studies
Research subject
Art, Technology and Design; Technology and Health; Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344944 (URN)
Funder
Bertil & Britt Svenssons Stiftelse för Belysningsteknik
Note

QC 20240405

Submitted

Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
5. Light and Motion: Effects of Light Conditions and MEDI on Activity and Motion Area under a Sky-Lighting Machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light and Motion: Effects of Light Conditions and MEDI on Activity and Motion Area under a Sky-Lighting Machine
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We investigated whether differences in light levels and spectral properties have effects on motion. Twenty-two participants, divided into groups of two, experienced the same room in two diffused light conditions (Daylight DL or static Artificial light AL), which were experienced in a repeated measure design layout, controlled for order. Both light conditions offered a stimulus of at least 250 melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance (mEDI) lx, without a view. Participants were observed during an individual reading session and a collaborative construction game session. We measured the connectivity of the built structures; Activity by actigraphy; and we automatically extracted Motion Area and Quantity of Motion from video analysis. We found a correlation between mEDI values in the two Light Conditions (Daylight DL or Artificial light AL) and Activity; and a correlation between Light Condition and Motion Area. Diffuse daylight conditions were correlated with lower activity and less extended motion than a diffuse static condition, at levels recommended for office lighting and to ensure alerting responses. Indeed, static artificial light was found to be related to increased spatial exploration, which might indicate restlessness, and high mEDI to a more composed motion. Actigraphy measurements correlate with quantity of motion values, therefore the two methods provide comparable results. Results also show a high correlation between all photometric values in the daylight condition. These findings offer arguments for favoring diffuse daylight conditions in the design of places where it is desirable to avoid fidgetiness, like educational institutions, and to support composed motion, like medical institutions.  

Keywords
Lighting design, Daylight, Variability, Interdisciplinary, Motion, Automatic motion features analysis, Construction game
National Category
Design Psychology Architecture
Research subject
Technology and Health; Art, Technology and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344945 (URN)
Funder
Bertil & Britt Svenssons Stiftelse för Belysningsteknik
Note

QC 20240405

Submitted

Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved

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