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A PLS model for predicting rejection of trace organic compounds by nanofiltration using treated wastewater as feed
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
2017 (English)In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 174, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study a Partial Least Squares Projection of Latent Structures (PLS) model has been developed for predicting the rejection of pharmaceutical residuals by nanofiltration (NF) using treated municipal wastewater as feed. The objective was to provide a practical tool for wastewater reuse facilities for estimating the rejection of emerging organic contaminants based on their physiochemical characteristics. The model was developed by identifying the important physiochemical properties of pharmaceutical residuals for rejection by NF. The investigated pharmaceuticals were those present in the effluent from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), Sweden. The rejection, at volume reduction factors (VRF) ranging from 2 to 20, was examined in a NF pilot plant at two occasions. The important variables for rejection by NF were, in descending order: polarizability, globularity, ratio hydrophobic to polar water accessible surface area and compound charge. Two studies were performed with a time interval of about a year with different wastewater matrices and age of membranes. For different VRFs, but in the same study, the model produced consistent predicted rejections. For the same VRF, but in the different studies, the regression lines were almost parallel, but with a deviation of about 7% for the predicted values. Most of the compounds were within the 95% prediction interval. The model also proved to be able to predict rejection using data from the literature. This confirms that the predictive PLS model can estimate the rejection albeit, with limitations. Generally the proposed predictive rejection model is most likely valid but the model coefficients need to be determined for each individual WWTP or wastewater reuse facility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 174, p. 212-221
Keywords [en]
Nanofiltration, Pharmaceuticals, PLS model, Wastewater reuse
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202084DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2016.10.029Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84993971336OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-202084DiVA, id: diva2:1075101
Note

QC 20170217

Available from: 2017-02-17 Created: 2017-02-17 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pharmaceuticals – improved removal from municipal wastewater and their occurrence in the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pharmaceuticals – improved removal from municipal wastewater and their occurrence in the Baltic Sea
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pharmaceutical residues are found in the environment due to extensive use in human and veterinary medicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have a potential impact in non-target organisms. Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove APIs.

In this thesis, two related matters are addressed 1) evaluation of advanced treatment to remove APIs from municipal wastewater and 2) the prevalence and degradation of APIs in the Baltic Sea.

A stationary pilot plant with nanofiltration (NF) and a mobile pilot plant with activated carbon and ozonation were designed to study the removal of APIs at four WWTPs. By NF, removal reached 90%, but the retentate needed further treatment. A predictive model of the rejection of APIs by NF was developed based on the variables: polarizability, globularity, ratio hydrophobic to polar water accessible surface and charge. The pilot plants with granular and powdered activated carbon (GAC) and (PAC) removed more than 95% of the APIs. Screening of activated carbon products was essential, because of a broad variation in adsorption capacity. Recirculation of PAC or longer contact time, increased the removal of APIs. Ozonation with 5-7 g/m3 ozone resulted in 87-95% removal of APIs. Elevated activity and transcription of biomarkers indicated presence of xenobiotics in regular effluent. Chemical analysis of APIs, together with analysis of biomarkers, were valuable and showed that GAC-filtration and ozonation can be implemented to remove APIs in WWTPs, with decreased biomarker responses.

Sampling of the Baltic Sea showed presence of APIs in 41 out of 43 locations. A developed grey box model predicted concentration and half-life of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea to be 1.8 ng/L and 1300 d respectively.

In conclusion, APIs were removed to 95% by GAC or PAC treatment. The additional treatment resulted in lower biomarker responses than today and some APIs were shown to be widespread in the aquatic environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 150
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018-62
Keywords
Advanced wastewater treatment, WWTP, pilot plant, pharmaceutical residues, removal of pharmaceuticals, activated carbon, ozonation, nanofiltration, biomarker, Baltic Sea
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239307 (URN)978-91-7873-047-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, MistraPharma
Note

QC 20181120

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved

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