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On the mechanism behind freezing-induced chemical crosslinking in ice-templated cellulose nanofibril aerogels
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1874-2187
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5444-7276
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9486-5288
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 40, p. 19371-19380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The underlying mechanism related to freezing-induced crosslinking of aldehyde-containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has been investigated, and the critical parameters behind this process have been identified. The aldehydes introduced by periodate oxidation allows for formation of hemiacetal bonds between the CNFs provided the fibrils are in sufficiently close contact before the water is removed. This is achieved during the freezing process where the cellulose components are initially separated, and the growth of ice crystals forces the CNFs to come into contact in the thin lamellae between the ice crystals. The crosslinked 3-D structure of the CNFs can subsequently be dried under ambient conditions after solvent exchange and still maintain a remarkably low density of 35 kg m-3, i.e. a porosity greater than 98%. A lower critical amount of aldehydes, 0.6 mmol g-1, was found necessary in order to generate a crosslinked 3-D CNF structure of sufficient strength not to collapse during the ambient drying. The chemical stability of the 3-D structure can be further enhanced by converting the hemiacetals to acetals by treatment with an alcohol under acidic conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry , 2018. Vol. 6, no 40, p. 19371-19380
Keywords [en]
Aerogels, Aldehydes, Cellulose, Chemical stability, Crosslinking, Freezing, Nanofibers, Acidic conditions, Ambient conditions, Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), Chemical cross-linking, Freezing process, Lower critical, Periodate oxidation, Solvent exchanges, Ice
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247488DOI: 10.1039/c8ta06319bISI: 000448413100008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85055128762OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-247488DiVA, id: diva2:1302742
Note

QC 20190405

Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved

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Erlandsson, JohanPettersson, TorbjörnIngverud, TobiasLarsson, Per A.Malkoch, MichaelWågberg, Lars

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