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Limits on Stellar-Mass Compact Objects as Dark Matter from Gravitational Lensing of Type Ia Supernovae
KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBNL, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191, France.
2018 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 121, no 14, article id 141101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nature of dark matter (DM) remains unknown despite very precise knowledge of its abundance in the Universe. An alternative to new elementary particles postulates DM as made of macroscopic compact halo objects (MACHO) such as black holes formed in the very early Universe. Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) are subject to less robust constraints than other mass ranges and might be connected to gravitational-wave signals detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). New methods are therefore necessary to constrain the viability of compact objects as a DM candidate. Here we report bounds on the abundance of compact objects from gravitational lensing of type Ia supernovae (SNe). Current SNe data sets constrain compact objects to represent less than 35.2% (Joint Lightcurve Analysis) and 37.2% (Union 2.1) of the total matter content in the Universe, at 95% confidence level. The results are valid for masses larger than ∼0.01 M (solar masses), limited by the size SNe relative to the lens Einstein radius. We demonstrate the mass range of the constraints by computing magnification probabilities for realistic SNe sizes and different values of the PBH mass. Our bounds are sensitive to the total abundance of compact objects with M0.01 M and complementary to other observational tests. These results are robust against cosmological parameters, outlier rejection, correlated noise, and selection bias. PBHs and other MACHOs are therefore ruled out as the dominant form of DM for objects associated to LIGO gravitational wave detections. These bounds constrain early-Universe models that predict stellar-mass PBH production and strengthen the case for lighter forms of DM, including new elementary particles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society , 2018. Vol. 121, no 14, article id 141101
Keywords [en]
Elementary particles, Galaxies, Gravitational effects, Gravity waves, Interferometers, Laser interferometry, Relativity, Confidence levels, Cosmological parameters, Gravitational lensing, Gravitational-wave detection, Gravitational-wave signals, Laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatories, Outlier rejection, Primordial black holes, Supernovae
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247158DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.141101ISI: 000446138000002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85054549011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-247158DiVA, id: diva2:1313946
Note

QC 20190507

Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved

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Zumalacarregui, Miguel

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