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Energy performance of low temperature heating systems in five new-built swedish dwellings: A case study using simulations and on-site measurements
KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8614-5806
KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-1882-3833
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 64, s. 85-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In Europe, high energy consumption in built environments has raised the need for developing low energy heating systems both in new building and in retrofitting of existing buildings. This paper aims to contribute by presenting annual results of calculated and measured energy consumption in five new-built semi-detached dwellings in Stockholm, Sweden. All buildings were equipped with similar low temperature heating systems combining under-floor heating and ventilation radiators. Exhaust ventilation heat pumps supported the low temperature heating system. Buildings were modeled using the energy simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) 4, and energy consumption of the heat pumps was measured. Results showed that calculated and measured results were generally in agreement for all five dwellings, and that the buildings not only met energy requirements of the Swedish building regulations but also provided good thermal comfort.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2013. Vol. 64, s. 85-93
Emneord [en]
Energy performance, High energy consumption, IDA ICE 4, Low temperature heating, Low temperatures, Measured energy consumption, Site measurements, Ventilation radiators, Building codes, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Heat pump systems, Housing, Temperature, Heating equipment, building, energy use, heating, low temperature, ventilation, Stockholm [Sweden], Sweden
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123567DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.02.009ISI: 000319548100009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84876331057OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-123567DiVA, id: diva2:627743
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Energy Agency
Merknad

QC 20160623

Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-06-12 Laget: 2013-06-12 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Energy and Indoor Environment in New Buildings with Low-Temperature Heating System
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy and Indoor Environment in New Buildings with Low-Temperature Heating System
2013 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate new buildings with low-temperature heating systems in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort, and to pay some attention to energy savings and indoor air quality. To reach this aim, on-site measurements as well as building energy simulations using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) 4 were performed. Results show that the investigated buildings with low-temperature heating system could meet the energy requirements of Swedish regulations in BBR (Boverkets byggregler), as well as provide a good level of thermal comfort. Implementing variable air volume ventilation instead of constant flow, i.e. decreasing the ventilation air from 0.35 to 0.10 l·s-1·m-2 during the whole unoccupancy (10 hours), gave up to 23 % energy savings for heating the ventilation air. However, the indoor air quality was not acceptable because VOC (volatile organic compound) concentration was slightly above the acceptable range for one hour after occupants arrive home. So, in order to create acceptable indoor air quality a return back to the normal ventilation requirements was suggested to take place two hours before the home was occupied. This gave 20 % savings for ventilation heating. The results of this study are in line with the European Union 20-20-20 goal to increase the efficiency of buildings by 20 % to the year 2020.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. s. 22
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123566 (URN)978-91-7501-783-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-06-14, Sal B 26, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

QC 20130612

Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-06-12 Laget: 2013-06-12 Sist oppdatert: 2013-06-12bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Low-Temperature Heating and Ventilation for Sustainability in Energy Efficient Buildings
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Low-Temperature Heating and Ventilation for Sustainability in Energy Efficient Buildings
2015 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

In 2013, the building sector consumed approximately 39 % of the total final energy use in Sweden. Energy used for heating and hot water was responsible for approximately 60 % of the total energy consumption in the building sector. Therefore, energy-efficient and renewable-based heating and ventilation systems have high potential for energy savings. The potentials studied in this thesis include the combination of a low-temperature heat emitter (supply temperature below 45 °C) with heat pump and/or seasonal thermal energy storage, and variable air volume ventilation system. The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate energy savings and indoor air quality when those energy-efficient and sustainable heating and ventilation systems were implemented in buildings. For this purpose, on-site measurements, lab tests, analytical models, and building energy simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4 were used.

Annual on-site measurements for five new two-family houses with low- and very-low-temperature heat emitters connected to an exhaust air heat pump showed  that  between  45–51 kWh∙m-2 energy was used  to  produce  and transport supply water for space heating and domestic hot water. Statistical data showed that these values are 39–46 % lower compared to the energy requirement for the same usage  which is, 84 kWh∙m-2)  in  an  average Swedish new single- and two-family house.

Annual on-site measurements for five new two-family houses with low- and very-low-temperature heat emitters connected to an exhaust air heat pump showed that between 45–51 kWh∙m-2 energy was used to produce and transport supply water for space heating and domestic hot water. Statistical data showed that these values are 39–46 % lower compared to the energy requirement for the same usage (which is, 84 kWh∙m-2) in an average Swedish new single- and two-family house.

In order to compare the energy performance of very-low- and low-temperature heat emitters with medium-temperature heat emitters under the same condition, lab tests were conducted in a climate chamber facility at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). To cover the heat demand of 20 W·m-2 by active heating, measurements showed that the required supply water temperatures were 45 ºC for the conventional radiator, 33 ºC in ventilation radiator and 30 ºC in floor heating. This 12–15 ºC temperature reduction with ventilation radiator and floor heating resulted in 17–22 % savings in energy consumption compared to a reference case with conventional radiator.

Reducing the supply temperature to the building’s heating system allows using more renewable and low-quality heat sources. In this thesis, the application of seasonal thermal energy storage in combination with heat pump in a building with very-low-, low-, and medium-temperature heat emitters was investigated. Analytical model showed that using a 250 m3 hot water seasonal storage tank connected to a 50 m2 solar collector and a heat pump resulted in 85–92 % of the total heat demand being covered by solar energy.

In addition to the heating system, this thesis also looked at ventilation system in terms of implementing variable (low) air volume ventilation instead of a constant (high) flow in new and retrofitted old buildings. The analytical model showed that, for new buildings with high volatile organic compound concentration during initial years of construction, decreasing the ventilation rate to 0.1 L·s-1·m-2 during the entire un-occupancy period (from 8:00–18:00) creates unacceptable indoor air quality when home is occupied at  18:00.  So,  in  order  to  create  acceptable  indoor  air  quality  when  the occupants come home, a return to the normal ventilation requirements was suggested to take place two hours before the home was occupied. This eight- hour ventilation reduction produced savings of 20 % for ventilation heating and 30 % for electricity consumption by ventilation fan.

In addition, the influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality and energy savings was studied experimentally and analytically in a single- family house occupied by two adults and one infant. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration as an indicator of indoor air quality was considered in order to find  appropriate  ventilation  rates.  Measurements  showed  that,  with  an 0.20 L∙s-1∙m-2  ventilation rate, the CO2   level  was always below 950 ppm, which shows that this level is sufficient for the reference building (CO2 lower than 1000 ppm is acceptable). Calculations showed that low ventilation rates of 0.20 L∙s1∙m-2 caused 43 % savings of the combined energy consumption for  ventilation  fan  and  ventilation  heating  compared  to  the  cases  with 0.35 L∙s-1∙m-2  as a normal ventilation rate recommended by BBR (Swedish Building Regulations).

 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. s. x, 40
Emneord
Low-temperature heating system, Energy savings, Seasonal thermal energy storage, Variable air volume ventilation system, Indoor air quality
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170065 (URN)978-91-7595-650-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2015-09-04, M3, Brinellvägen 64, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

QC 20150626

Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-06-26 Laget: 2015-06-26 Sist oppdatert: 2015-08-11bibliografisk kontrollert

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