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Stability of the flow in a flow-focusing device
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9976-8316
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-3737-0091
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153222OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-153222DiVA, id: diva2:752098
Merknad

QS 2014

Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-10-02 Laget: 2014-10-02 Sist oppdatert: 2014-10-03bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Transitional and turbulent fibre suspension flows
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Transitional and turbulent fibre suspension flows
2014 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis the orientation of macro-sized fibres in turbulent flows is studied, as well as the effect of nano-sized fibrils on hydrodynamic stability. The focus lies on enabling processes for new materials where cellulose is the main constituent. When fibres (or any elongated particles) are added to a fluid, the complexity of the flow-problem increases. The fluid flow will influence the rotation of the fibres, and therefore also effect the overall fibre orientation. Exactly how the fibres rotate depends to a large extent on the mean velocity gradient in the flow.

In addition, when fibres are added to a suspending fluid, the total stress in the suspension will increase, resulting in an increased apparent viscosity. The increase in stress is related to the direction of deformation in relation to the orientation of the particle, i.e. whether the deformation happens along the long or short axis of the fibre. The increase in stress, which in most cases is not constant neither in time nor space, will in turn influence the flow.

This thesis starts off with the orientation and spatial distribution of fibres in the turbulent flow down an inclined plate. By varying fibre and flow parameters it is discovered that the main parameter controlling the orientation distribution is the aspect ratio of the fibres, with only minor influences from the other parameters. Moreover, the fibres are found to agglomerate into streamwise streaks. A new method to quantify this agglomeration is developed, taking care of the problems that arise due to the low concentration in the experiments. It is found that streakiness, i.e. the tendency to agglomerate in streaks, varies with Reynolds number.

Going from fibre orientation to flow dynamics of fibre suspensions, the influence of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) on laminar/turbulent transition is investigated in three different setups, namely plane channel flow, curved-rotating channel flow, and the flow in a flow focusing device. This last flow case is selected since it is can be used for assembly of CNF based materials. In the plane channel flow, the addition of CNF delays the transition more than predicted from measured viscosities while in the curved-rotating channel the opposite effect is discovered. This is qualitatively confirmed by linear stability analyses. Moreover, a transient growth analysis in the plane channel reveals an increase in streamwise wavenumber with increasing concentration of CNF. In the flow focusing device, i.e. at the intersection of three inlets and one outlet, the transition is found to mainly depend on the Reynolds number of the side flow. Recirculation zones forming downstream of two sharp corners are hypothesised to be the cause of the transition. With that in mind, the two corners are given a larger radius in an attempt to stabilise the flow. However, if anything, the flow seems to become unstable at a smaller Reynolds number, indicating that the separation bubble is not the sole cause of the transition. The choice of fluid in the core flow is found to have no effect on the stability, neither when using fluids with different viscosities nor when a non-Newtonian CNF dispersion was used. Thus, Newtonian model fluids can be used when studying the flow dynamics in this type of device.

As a proof of concept, a flow focusing device is used to produce a continuous film from CNF. The fibrils are believed to be aligned due to the extensional flow created in the setup, resulting in a transparent film, with an estimated thickness of 1 um.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. s. x, 56
Serie
TRITA-MEK, ISSN 0348-467X ; 2014.22
Emneord
Fluid mechanics, fibre suspension, turbulence, laminar-turbulent transition, image analysis, hydrodynamic stability, cellulose nanofibrils.
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Teknisk mekanik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153018 (URN)978-91-7595-287-1 (ISBN)
Disputas
2014-10-24, L1, Drottning Kristinas Väg 30, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Forskningsfinansiär
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Merknad

QC 20141003

Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-10-03 Laget: 2014-10-02 Sist oppdatert: 2015-03-06bibliografisk kontrollert

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