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Black Dross: Processing Salt Removal from Black Dross by Thermal Treatment
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap. Northern Research Institute, Norway.
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 66, nr 11, s. 2243-2252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The salt removal from black dross by thermal treatment has experimentally been studied under different conditions in both a stationary resistance furnace and in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The experiments were designed based on partial pressure calculations using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The salt removal efficiency was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses, and the optimum conditions for treatment established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature, as well as by reduced pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the highest degree of chloride removal from a 20 g sample was obtained after 10 h at 1523 K resulting in a 98% removal and a final chloride content of 0.3 wt.% in the residue. Under reduced pressure, the chloride concentrate was lowered to 0.2 wt.% after thermal treatment of a 20 g sample at 1473 K for 8 h. In the case of 200 g samples treated in a rotary furnace, the chloride concentrate was 2.5 wt.% after 14 h at 1523 K, representing a removal of 87%. Below 0.3 wt.% chloride content, the material is deemed a nonhazardous waste.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2014. Vol. 66, nr 11, s. 2243-2252
Emneord [en]
Aluminum Dross, Cake, Management
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157607DOI: 10.1007/s11837-014-1178-6ISI: 000344618900016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84925483060OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-157607DiVA, id: diva2:771176
Merknad

QC 20141212

Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-12-12 Laget: 2014-12-11 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Aluminium recycling requires 95% less energy than primary production with no loss of quality. The Black Dross (BD) produced during secondary aluminium production contains high amounts of water-soluble compounds, therefore it is considered as a toxic waste. In the present work, salt removal from BD by thermal treatment has been investigated in laboratory scale. The optimum conditions for treatment were established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature. Even Pretreated Black Dross (PBD) was evaluated as a possible raw material for the production of a calcium aluminate-based ladle-fluxing agent to be used in the steel industry. The effects of different process parameters on the properties of the produced flux were experimentally investigated, i.e. CaO/Al2O3 ratio, temperature, holding time, and cooling media. The utilization of PBD as the alumina source during the production of a calcium aluminate fluxing agent shows promising results. The iron/steel industry is responsible for 9% of anthropogenic energy and process CO2 emissions. It is believed that the only way to a long-term reduction of the CO2 emissions from the iron/steel industry is commercialization of alternative processes such as Direct Reduction (DR) of iron oxide. Detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the reduction reactions is, however, a prerequisite for the design and optimization of the DR process. To obtain a better understanding of the reduction kinetics, a model was developed step-by-step, from a single pellet to a fixed bed with many pellets. The equations were solved using the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics®. The final model considers the reaction rate and mass transfer inside the pellet, as well as the mass transfers and heat transfer in the fixed bed. All the models were verified against experimental results, and where found to describe the results in a satisfying way.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. s. 84
Serie
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:3
Emneord
Sustainability, Optimization, Black Dross, Salt removal, Steel flux agent, Waste processing, Greenhouse gases, Direct reduction, COMSOL Multiphysics®
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196547 (URN)978-91-7729-214-2 (ISBN)
Disputas
2017-01-09, F3, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

QC 20161128

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-11-28 Laget: 2016-11-15 Sist oppdatert: 2016-11-28bibliografisk kontrollert

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