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Preparing Spatial Haptics for Interaction Design
KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8093-5911
2016 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)Alternativ tittel
Att förbereda 3D-Haptik för interaktionsdesign (svensk)
Abstract [en]

Spatial haptics is a fascinating technology with which users can explore and modify3D computer graphics objects with the sense of touch, but its application potentialis often misunderstood. For a large group of application designers it is still unknown,and those who are aware of it often have either too high expectations of what is technicallyachievable or believe it is too complicated to consider at all. In addition, spatialhaptics is in its current form ill-suited to interaction design. This is partly because theproperties and use qualities cannot be experienced in an application prototype until asystem is fully implemented, which takes too much effort to be practical in most designsettings. In order to find a good match between a solution and a framing of aproblem, the designer needs to be able to mould/shape/form the technology into a solution,but also to re-frame the problem and question initial conceptual designs as shelearns more about what the technology affords. Both of these activities require a goodunderstanding of the design opportunities of this technology.

In this thesis I present a new way of working with spatial haptic interaction design.Studying the serially linked mechanism from a well-known haptic device, and a forcereflectingcarving algorithm in particular, I show how to turn these technologies froman esoteric engineering form into a form ready for interaction design. The work isgrounded in a real application: an oral surgery simulator named Kobra that has beendeveloped over the course of seven years within our research group. Its design hasgone through an evolutionary process with iterative design and hundreds of encounterswith the audience; surgeon-teachers as users and potential customers. Some ideas, e.g.gestalting authentic patient cases, have as a result received increased attention by thedesign team, while other ideas, e.g. automatic assessment, have faded away.

Simulation is an idea that leads to ideals of realism; that e.g. simulated instrumentsshould behave as in reality, e.g. a simulated dental instrument for prying teeth is expectedto behave according to the laws of physics and give force and torque feedback.If it does not, it is a bad simulation. In the present work it is shown how some of therealism ideal is unnecessary for creating meaningful learning applications and can actuallyeven be counter-productive, since it may limit the exploration of creative designsolutions. This result is a shift in perspective from working towards constantly improvingtechnological components, to finding and making use of the qualities of modern,but not necessarily absolute cutting-edge, haptic technology.

To be able to work creatively with a haptic system as a design resource we needto learn its material qualities and how - through changing essential properties - meaningfulexperiential qualities can be modulated and tuned. This requires novel tools andworkflows that enable designers to explore the creative design space, create interactionsketches and tune the design to cater for the user experience. In essence, this thesisshows how one instance of spatial haptics can be turned from an esoteric technologyinto a design material, and how that can be used, and formed, with novel tools throughthe interaction design of a purposeful product in the domain of dental education.

Abstract [sv]

3D-haptik är en fascinerande teknologi med vilken användare kan utforska ochmodifiera tredimensionella datorgrafik-objekt med känseln, men dess användningspotentialär ofta missförstådd. För flertalet applikationsutvecklare är tekniken fortfarandetill stor del okänd, och de som känner till den har antingen alltför höga förväntingarav vad som är tekniskt möjligt, eller uppfattar 3D-haptik som alltför komplicerat föratt vara ett gångbart alternativ. Dessutom är 3D-haptik i sin nuvarande form tämligenomoget för interaktionsdesign. Detta beror till stor del på att en applikationsprototypsegenskaper och användarkvaliteter inte kan upplevas innan ett system är implementerati sin helhet, vilket kräver alltför stora utvecklingsresurser för att vara praktisktförsvarbart i de flesta designsituationer. För att uppnå en bra matchning mellan ett användarbehovi en viss situation och en potentiell lösning behöver en designer kunna åena sidan formge och finjustera tekniken, och å andra sidan vara öppen för att ifrågasättaoch ändra problemformulering och konceptdesign när hen lär sig mer om vilkamöjligheter tekniken erbjuder. Båda dessa aktiviteter kräver en god förståelse för vilkadesignmöjligheter som en viss teknik, eller material, erbjuder.

I den här avhandlingen presenterar jag ett nytt sätt att arbeta med interaktionsdesignför 3D-haptik. Genom att studera i synnerhet den seriellt länkade mekanismen somåterfinns i en vanligt förekommande typ av 3D-haptikenhet, och en kraftåterkopplandeskärande/borrande algoritm visar jag hur man kan omvandla dessa teknologier från attvara en svårtillgänglig ingengörskonst till en form som är mer redo för interaktionsdesign.Denna förberedelse resulterar i ett slags designmaterial, samt de verktyg ochprocesser som har visat sig nödvändiga för att effektivt kunna arbeta med materialet.Forskningen är grundad i en verklig tillämpning: en simulator för käkkirurgi vidnamn Kobra, som har utvecklas under sju år inom vår forskargrupp. Kobras utformninghar genomgått en evolutionär utvecklingsprocess med iterativ design och hundratalsmöten med målgruppen; lärarpraktiserande käkkirurger och studenter som användareoch potentiella kunder. Därvid har några designidéer, t.ex. gestaltning av patientfall, avdesignteamet fått utökad uppmärksamhet medan andra idéer, t.ex. automatisk gradering,har tonats ned.

Simulering är i sig självt en idé som ofta leder till ett ideal av realism; till exempelatt simulerade instrument ska uppföra sig som i verkligheten, det vill säga ett simulerattandläkarinstrument för att hävla (bända) tänder förväntas följa fysikens lagar och geåterkoppling i form av av både kraft och vridmoment. Om detta inte uppfylls betraktassimuleringen som undermålig. I det aktuella arbetet visas hur delar av realism-idealetinte är nödvändigt för att skapa meningsfulla lärandeapplikationer, och att det till ochmed kan vara kontraproduktivt eftersom det begränsar utforskande av kreativa designlösningar.Ifrågasättandet av realsimidealet resulterar i ett perspektivskifte vad gällersimulatorutveckling generellt, från att ensidigt fokusera på vidareutveckling av enskildatekniska komponenter, till att identifiera och dra nytta av kvaliteterna som redanerbjuds i modern haptisk teknik.

För att kunna arbeta kreativt med ett haptiksystem som en designresurs behöver vilära känna dess materialkvaliteter och hur, genom att ändra grundläggande parametrar,meningsfulla upplevelsekvaliteter kan moduleras och finjusteras. Detta kräver i sin turnyskapande av verktyg och arbetsflöden som möjliggör utforskande av det kreativadesignrummet, skapande av interaktionssketcher och finjustering av gestaltningen föratt tillgodose användarupplevelsen.

I grund och botten visar denna avhandling hur en specifik 3D-haptik-teknologi kanomvandlas från att vara en svårtillgänglig teknologi till att vara ett designmaterial, ochhur det kan användas, och formas, med nyskapande verktyg genom interaktionsdesignav en nyttoprodukt inom tandläkarutbildning

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xiii, 81 s.
Serie
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2016:06
Emneord [en]
haptics, interaction design, surgery simulation
Emneord [sv]
haptik, interaktionsdesign, medicinsk simulering, kirurgi
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Människa-datorinteraktion
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183373ISBN: 978-91-7595-882-8 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-183373DiVA: diva2:910073
Disputas
2016-04-06, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 2, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

QC 20160309

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-09 Laget: 2016-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2016-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Designing the Kobra Oral Surgery SimulatorUsing a Practice-Based Understanding of Educational Contexts
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Designing the Kobra Oral Surgery SimulatorUsing a Practice-Based Understanding of Educational Contexts
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Surgery simulation is a core application area of computer haptics and simulation technologies, giving aspiring surgeons theopportunity to practice hands-on using complex manual actions before encountering real patients. The design of the haptic feedback isan important aspect of developing such tools, but the design of a surgery simulator involves also many other aspects. This paperpresents a long-term case of designing and iteratively developing an oral surgery simulator named Kobra. Based on feedback fromsurgeons, students and curriculum developers, as well as through insights from actual design work, particular aspects of the designthat support learning have been identified and articulated. Based on experience of designing simulator exercises originating fromauthentic patient cases it is shown how simulation techniques can be appropriated to support oral surgery teaching, through targetedinteraction design. The study highlights important aspects to consider for further design work in this domain, i.e. the value of realismand surgical relevance, the social setting of teaching surgery, content authenticity, and the physical qualities of the simulator.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Människa-datorinteraktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183371 (URN)
Merknad

QS 2016

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-08 Laget: 2016-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2016-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
2. WoodenHaptics: A Starting Kit for Crafting Force-Reflecting Spatial Haptic Devices
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>WoodenHaptics: A Starting Kit for Crafting Force-Reflecting Spatial Haptic Devices
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, Stanford: ACM Digital Library, 2015, 133-140 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Spatial haptic interfaces have been around for 20 years. Yet, few affordable devices have been produced, and the design space in terms of physical workspace and haptic fidelity of devices that have been produced are limited and discrete. In this paper, an open-source, open-hardware module-based kit is presented that allows an interaction designer with little electro-mechanical experience to manufacture and assemble a fully working spatial haptic interface. It also allows for modification in shape and size as well as tuning of parameters to fit a particular task or application. Results from an evaluation showed that the haptic quality of the WoodenHaptics device was on par with a Phantom Desktop and that a novice could assemble it with guidance in a normal office space. This open source starting kit, uploaded free-to-download online, affords sketching in hardware; it “unsticks” the hardware from being a highly-specialized and esoteric craft to being an accessible and user-friendly technology, while maintaining the feel of high-fidelity haptics.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stanford: ACM Digital Library, 2015
Emneord
Guides; do-it-yourself; open-source; open-hardware; spatial haptics; force-feedback; haptic device; hardware sketching; interaction design
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Människa-datorinteraktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164285 (URN)10.1145/2677199.2680595 (DOI)2-s2.0-84924057539 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-3305-4 (ISBN)
Konferanse
Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction TEI 2015,Stanford University, January 15-19 2015
Merknad

QC 20150420

Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-04-15 Laget: 2015-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2016-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Tangible sketching of interactive haptic materials
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Tangible sketching of interactive haptic materials
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction, TEI 2012, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, 111-114 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The activity of sketching can be highly beneficial when applied to the design of haptic material interaction. To illustrate this approach we created a design tool with a tangible hardware interface to facilitate the act of haptic material sketching and used this tool to design an anatomy exploration application. We found this approach particularly efficient in designing non-visual properties of haptic materials. The design tool enabled instant tactile perception of changes in material properties combined with the ability to make on the fly adjustments, thus creating a sense of pliability.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012
Emneord
Design, Haptics, Interaction Design, Sketching, Tangible Interfaces, Design tool, Hardware interfaces, Material interactions, Material property, On the flies, Tactile perception, Haptic interfaces, Interactive computer systems, Interfaces (materials)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99658 (URN)10.1145/2148131.2148156 (DOI)2-s2.0-84859027105 (Scopus ID)9781450311748 (ISBN)
Konferanse
6th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction, TEI 2012; Kingston, ON; 19 February 2012 through 22 February 2012
Merknad
QC 20120801Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-08-01 Laget: 2012-08-01 Sist oppdatert: 2016-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Designing the Experience of Visuohaptic Carving
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Designing the Experience of Visuohaptic Carving
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces an interaction technique called visuohaptic carving, and a strategy for how it can be utilized concretely by designers. Visuohaptic carving is well suited for visualization of multi-layered computer graphics objects where the aim is to illustrate and explore spatial relationships between segments and structures within three-dimensional objects. Possible applications include anatomy exploration, cut-away illustrations and interactive art. Through our work with designing applications that uses visuohaptic carving, we have identified three key requirements as a strategy for making visuohaptic carving an effective design resource: 1) a ready-made but mutable implementation, 2) tools to directly form and tune the implementation in terms of scale, stiffness and carving rate, and 3) formulation of a work-flow practice.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Människa-datorinteraktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183372 (URN)
Merknad

QS 2016

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-08 Laget: 2016-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2016-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
5. The effect of haptic degrees of freedom on task performance in virtual surgical environments
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The effect of haptic degrees of freedom on task performance in virtual surgical environments
Vise andre…
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 184, 129-135 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Force and touch feedback, or haptics, can play a significant role in the realism of virtual reality surgical simulation. While it is accepted that simulators providing haptic feedback often outperform those that do not, little is known about the degree of haptic fidelity required to achieve simulation objectives. This article evaluates the effect that employing haptic rendering with different degrees of freedom (DOF) has on task performance in a virtual environment. Results show that 6-DOF haptic rendering significantly improves task performance over 3-DOF haptic rendering, even if computed torques are not displayed to the user. No significant difference could be observed between under-actuated (force only) and fully-actuated 6-DOF feedback in two surgically-motivated tasks.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
IOS Press, 2013
Emneord
surgical simulation, haptics, haptic rendering, task performance
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128604 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-209-7-129 (DOI)23400144 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84879517273 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

QC 20130916

Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-16 Laget: 2013-09-16 Sist oppdatert: 2016-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert

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