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A Compact High-Brightness Liquid-Metal-Jet X-Ray Source
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
2006 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the development and characterization of a compact high-brightness liquid-metal-jet anode x-ray source. Initial calculations show that a source based on this concept could potentially lead to a >100-fold increase of the brightness compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode x-ray sources. This improvement is due to an increased thermal load capacity of the anode.

A low-power proof-of-principle source has been built, and experiments show that the liquid-metal-jet anode can be operated at more than an order of magnitude higher power densities than modern solid-metal anodes. This brightness enhancement has been utilized to acquire in-line phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing objects with substantially shorter exposure times than previously reported. To be able to target different application areas different liquid-jet-anode materials have been tested. The Sn-jet anode could potentially be used in mammography examinations, whereas the Ga-jet could be utilized for, e.g., protein-structure determination with x-ray diffraction.

Scaling to higher power and brightness levels is discussed and seems conceivable. A potential obstacle for further development of this source concept, the generation of a microscopic high-speed liquid-metal jet in vacuum, is investigated and is proven to be feasible. Dynamic-similarity experiments using water jets to simulate 30-μm, ~500-m/s tin and gallium jets show good coherence and directional stability of the jet. Other potential difficulties in the further source development, such as excessive debris emission and instabilities of the x-ray emission spot, are also investigated in some detail.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , s. xii, 61
Serie
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2006:36
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4005ISBN: 91-7178-371-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4005DiVA, id: diva2:10352
Disputation
2006-06-09, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning
QC 20100915Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-30 Skapad: 2006-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-09-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source
2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, s. 1483-1485Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A liquid-metal-jet anode for improved brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray source was investigated. The generated x-ray flux and brightness was quantitatively measured in the 7-50 keV spectral region and found to agree with the theory. Applications such as mammography, angiography, and diffraction would benefit from a compact high-brightness source.

Nyckelord
Angiography, Diffraction, Mammography, X ray analysis
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5834 (URN)10.1063/1.1602157 (DOI)000184748600068 ()
Anmärkning
QC 20100915Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-30 Skapad: 2006-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
2. A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube
2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 1682-1688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

Nyckelord
brightness, X-ray source, electron-impact, liquid-metal jet
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5835 (URN)10.1117/1.1737787 (DOI)000222641200028 ()2-s2.0-4143078120 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20100915 QC 20111101. Conference on Laser-Generated and Other Laboratory X-Ray and EUV Sources, Optics, and Applications. San Diego, CA. AUG 04-06, 2003 Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-30 Skapad: 2006-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum
2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 39, s. 799-804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

Nyckelord
brightness, X-ray source, electron-impact, liquid-metal jet
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5836 (URN)10.1007/s00348-005-0013-9 (DOI)000233239900002 ()2-s2.0-27744509715 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20100915Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-30 Skapad: 2006-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
4. X-Ray Imaging with an Electron- Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet-Anode Source
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>X-Ray Imaging with an Electron- Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet-Anode Source
(Engelska)Ingår i: Radiology, ISSN 0033-8419, E-ISSN 1527-1315Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5837 (URN)
Anmärkning
QS 20120327Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-30 Skapad: 2006-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Stability and debris in high-brightness liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus x-ray sources
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Stability and debris in high-brightness liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus x-ray sources
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, nr 2, s. 026102-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate the x-ray spot stability and the debris emission in liquid-metal-jet anode electron-impact x-ray sources operating in the 10-100 W microfocus regime. The x-ray spot size is 15-23 mu m in diameter and the electron-beam power density is up to similar to 210 kW/mm(2), an order of magnitude higher than for conventional microfocus sources. In the power range of the investigation the source is stable in terms of spot size and position. The debris emission rate increases exponentially with the applied electron-beam power but may be reduced by combining larger and faster target jets with smaller e-beam foci and by mitigation schemes. It is concluded that the investigated factors will not limit the performance and function of liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact microfocus sources when operating in this high-brightness regime.

Nyckelord
Anodes, Electron beams, Light emission, Liquid metals, Debris emission, e-beam foci, Electron-impact, Microfocus x-ray sources
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8664 (URN)10.1063/1.2423229 (DOI)000243890800173 ()2-s2.0-33847751834 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20100915Tillgänglig från: 2008-06-04 Skapad: 2008-06-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
6. A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 79, nr 1, s. 016102-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a high-brightness compact 9 keV electron-impact microfocus x-ray source based on a liquid-gallium-jet anode. A similar to 30 W, 50 kV electron gun is focused onto the similar to 20 m/s, 30 mu m diameter liquid-gallium-jet anode to produce an similar to 10 mu m full width at half maximum x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is >2 x 10(10) photons/(s mm(2) mrad(2) x 0.1% BW). Calculation and experiments show potential for increasing this brightness by approximately three orders of magnitude, making the source suitable for laboratory-scale x-ray crystallography and hard x-ray microscopy.

Nyckelord
Electron guns, Gallium, Luminance, Microscopic examination, Photons, X ray crystallography, Electron impact, Hard x-ray microscopy, Peak spectral brightness, X-ray spot
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8666 (URN)10.1063/1.2833838 (DOI)000252821800060 ()2-s2.0-38849143134 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20100915Tillgänglig från: 2008-06-04 Skapad: 2008-06-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad

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