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Hardening Distortions of Serial Produced Crown Wheels
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0288-0238
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mekanisk metallografi.
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, ISSN 0933-5137, E-ISSN 1521-4052Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Abstract [en]

The hardening distortions of serial produced crown wheels are studied with respect to gear runout, inner diameter and back-face tilt. The data analysed originates from a production data base from ordinary production as well as from directed experiments carried out in production, resulting in a large set of data. Strong influences are found for steel plants, position of material in ingots and stacking levels on hardening trays. It could be concluded that rectangular strands have a detrimental effect on gear runout, which, however, can be strongly decreased by disabling the magnetic stirring during casting. Furthermore, the inner diameter after quenching is influenced by the stacking level on the hardening tray when free-hardening or when using a segmented central expander during press quenching. This influence is attributed to variations in hardening temperature. When press quenching using a fixed mandrel, the effect of stacking level disappears. Moreover, it is found that the back-face tilt strongly depends on the position in the ingot as well as on the stacking level on the hardening tray.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2017.
Nyckelord [en]
Hardening distortions, crown wheels, gear runout, case hardening, ingot casting, continuous casting
Nationell ämneskategori
Metallurgi och metalliska material
Forskningsämne
Teknisk materialvetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207121DOI: 10.1002/mawe.201700054ISI: 000409193900004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85028771283OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207121DiVA, id: diva2:1095942
Anmärkning

QC 20170516

Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-16 Skapad: 2017-05-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-02-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Hardening Distortions of Serial Produced Gears
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hardening Distortions of Serial Produced Gears
2017 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Hardening distortions are unwanted changes in shape and dimension that arise during hardening of steel components. Uncontrolled distortions induce random errors to the manufacturing process, and have a strong negative impact on manufacturing costs. The distortions are not only caused by the hardening process, several factors from previous manufacturing steps including the component geometry itself contribute to varying extent. The aim of the current work is to investigate the main influencing factors on hardening distortions for serial produced gears.

The investigations were done on two different types of gears for heavy-duty transmissions, crown wheels for the rear axle central gear and main shaft gears for the gearbox. The steel was produced using either continuous casting or ingot casting. For rectangular continuously cast steel, the effect of disabling magnetic stirring of the steel melt during casting was investigated, finding a strong reduction of gear runout for crown wheels. Segregations in crown wheels produced from the top and bottom of ingots were shown to go in opposite directions, producing opposite back-face tilts.

For crown wheels quenched one at a time, influences of stacking level on the hardening tray were found, indicating an impact from small variations in the carburizing process, despite identical quenching conditions. For main shaft gears, horizontal loading gave considerably less roundness and runout errors but increased flatness errors compared to vertical loading.

This thesis shows the complexity of the distortion phenomenon and how several factors interact and contribute to the final result. It is shown that factors with significant impact on hardening distortions for one component may be less important for another component. With this in mind, each type of component to be hardened should be produced by a manufacturing chain where each process step is carefully chosen with respect to minimizing distortions.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. s. 33
Nyckelord
hardening distortions, crown wheel, main shaft gear, gear runout, back-face tilt, macrosegregation, ingot casting, continuous casting, case hardening
Nationell ämneskategori
Metallurgi och metalliska material
Forskningsämne
Teknisk materialvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207087 (URN)978-91-7729-449-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-06-12, Hörsalen byggnad 260, Scania, Södertälje, 14:30 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

QC 20170516

Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-16 Skapad: 2017-05-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-05-19Bibliografiskt granskad

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Av författaren/redaktören
Olofsson, AndersJonsson, Stefan
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Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM)Mekanisk metallografi
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Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik
Metallurgi och metalliska material

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