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Compensation by black: a new separation?
KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: TAGA 2006, 2006, s. 193-217Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to examine the differences between UCR (Under Color Removal) and GCR (Gray Component Replacement) by testing these separation functions in three applications: Adobe Photoshop CS (an image editing application), Gretag Macbeth's Profile Maker 5.0 (profile maker), and Heidelberg's Print Open 4.0.5 (profile maker). A review of the literature pertaining to the different types of separation was made and compiled. An Internet search was also made to check what a prepress employee would find out if he or she was to search for a definition of one of these types of separation. The conclusions of the tests made suggest two alternative proposals and indicate a need to either: 1) Discard the term UCR and use only GCR, as it really only concerns gray component replacement. This would make it easier for people in the business to focus on the process itself instead of trying to understand the difference between the two types of separations, a difference which actually cannot be seen visualy in reality. 2) Discard both terms and introduce a new term CB (Compensation by Black). The software should give the user the possibility of choosing how much black will be used and where it will replace the use of a combination of the CMY process colors. In addition, a single term would make the user more aware of the problems of separation and of how separation will affect the print result. The suggestions imply an extensive review of accepted terms and abbreviations within the graphic arts industry with the aim of giving them a uniform scientific meaning and definition. Thus, it is strongly recommended that the term, CB (Compensation by Black) should be implemented.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2006. s. 193-217
Nyckelord [en]
Compensation; GCR; Separation; UCR
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6576OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6576DiVA, id: diva2:11324
Konferens
58th Annual Technical Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA 2006; Vancouver, BC; 19 March 2006 through 21 March 2006
Anmärkning
QC 20100617Tillgänglig från: 2006-12-12 Skapad: 2006-12-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-06-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Studies on image control for better reproduction in offset
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Studies on image control for better reproduction in offset
2006 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This research work has focused on studies of image control for better reproduction in offset and has been applied practically. This research work has resulted in a survey of color management knowledge, a communication list concerning ICC profiles, an educational kit, a proposal for a new terminology and a patent concerning image adaptation.

The work is divided into following three areas:

1) image classification

A better understanding of image processing can avoid misunderstandings in the print and leading to more satisfied customers. To achieve optimal print quality for different images, it is important to adapt the prepress settings to the image category. Images can be divided into different categories depending on their image content, key information and tone distribution.

Trials have been carried out in which the IT.8 test chart has been adapted to different image categories. The results of the image adaptation suggest that an adjustment only to low-key images (dark images) is sufficient, as even normal-key images then show a better similarity to the original image. The low-key image showed more details in dark areas.

2) color separation

Two studies has been carried out. The purpose has been to investigate the knowledge level in color separation, the use of ICC-profiles and the understanding of color management in various printing houses in Sweden. This was done to identify and suggest new applications and suggested actions. These studies indicate that there is a serious problem in the graphic arts industry. The problem is that there is both an insufficient knowledge of color management and a lack of communication. There is a lack of competence and a lack of literature and instructions which can help printers to better understand the technology, and communication suffers through a lack of a common language.

3) suggested actions and the development of tools

Terminology simplification is crucial for the users. A new term for separation “Compensation by Black”, CB, has been suggested. A single term should make it easier for the users to understand and use the different settings which impact the image reproduction. A new tool/kit for the evaluation of ICC-profiles has been created. The goal of this educational kit is to facilitate and exemplify the practical understanding of profiles and their use for the users.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. s. 101
Serie
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2006:27
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4224 (URN)978-91-7178-524-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-12-15, E2, KTH, Lindstedsvägen 3, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning
QC 20101112Tillgänglig från: 2006-12-12 Skapad: 2006-12-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Toward better image reproduction in offset
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Toward better image reproduction in offset
2010 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis has focused on color reproduction processes in the graphics field and is based on theoretical research and practical studies. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how new tools and tools adapted to a specific production set-up can be used to raise awareness regarding the quality and workflow of images and image processing for sheet-fed offset within the graphic industry.

The work is divided in to the following three study areas with several sub-studies:

1) The first research goal of the thesis is to identify knowledge levels regarding color separation of images and demand specifications within printing houses.

2) The second research goal is to investigate whether novel tools and new terminology can help to increase the knowledge level regarding color management

3) The third goal is to investigate whether process specific adaptation of key color control tools can improve quality levels

Three surveys about color reproduction (focusing on level of knowledge concerning color separation, the use of ICC-profiles and demand specifications for controlled color reproduction) at printing companies in Sweden were made between 2000 and 2004. The surveys indicated a serious problem in the graphic arts industry, involving both an insufficient understanding of color management and a lack of communication.

An important part of the work was to assist in make color management understandable for users and thereby optimize printing. For this purpose, digital test forms have been developed. The developed tools, together with descriptive material, will facilitate the understanding of color management issues. Definitions within the field of color separations have been examined, and changes have been suggested. A new term for separation “Compensation by Black”, CB, has been suggested, instead of e.g. GCR and UCR.

Is it possible to adapt the different parts of the process chain in order to achieve an improved production? Yes! This work has developed the method for adaptation of the scanne rtest chart, the printing test chart for image categorization and the control strip forsheet-fed offset using gray balance. This thesis suggests that it is possible to produce a custom-made IT8 target test chart for scanners and achieve a result at least similar to or even better than the standard test charts on the market. This work has also shown that itis possible to adapt the test chart for printing to image category. The result showed that low-key image separated by the image-adapted test chart showed more detail in the dark areas than a low-key image separated by the standard test chart, in the prints on a coated paper. The result from the adaptation of a control strip for sheet-fed offset showed that gray balance can be used as a control parameter for quality control in sheet-fed offset.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. s. 133
Serie
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2010:06
Nyckelord
Images, offset, printing, ICC, color, gamut, profile, calibration, separation, GCR, UCR, characterization, gray balance
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi) Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12432 (URN)978-91-7415-609-6 (ISBN)
Disputation
2010-05-03, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning
QC20100617Tillgänglig från: 2010-04-21 Skapad: 2010-04-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Gravure vs. Web-offset!: a changing world in publication printing 1986-2006
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gravure vs. Web-offset!: a changing world in publication printing 1986-2006
2007 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The European publication printing industry and its markets have undergone profound structural changes between 1986 and 2006. This thesis is an investigation of these changes and of how the publication industry has been affected, as well as of the balance between publication gravure and commercial heat-set web-offset. The publication printing market has grown substantially during 1986-2006, and the increase in volume is about 250%, from 5 million tons to 13 million tons of paper. In 1986, gravure was the dominating publication printing technique. Since 1986, however, web-offset printing has grown substantially, and the process has today a much larger market share of the European publication market. This domination is also reflected in the investments in new printing capacity since 2000, where 70-75% has gone to commercial heat-set web-offset press manufacturers.

This thesis focuses on the reasons why the balance between the two competing publication printing techniques, gravure and web-offset, changed between 1986 and 2006. It also studies the main driving forces determining the developments of these techniques and their related processes as well as their competitive strengths. Is gravure a printing process suitable only for very large runs, for huge volumes and for large markets? The changes in the European media market have affected the two major segments of the publication market; magazine and catalogue printing. In the magazine market, print runs in the segments of medium to large titles have decreased, and catalogues have changed from a single, thick catalogue to thinner; more targeted catalogues.

This thesis is based on two studies. The first, focused on the market requirements and techno-economical comparisons of gravure and web-offset in 1985-1986, was carried out by the author as the Secretary General of the European Rotogravure Association (ERA), and the second, in 2005-2006, has investigated the present situation on the European publication markets. The methodologies used in the investigations have been questionnaires (the originals 1985-86 have also been used in 2005-2006), surveys, literature studies and a substantial number of interviews with representatives of print buyers (publishers and catalogue producers), printers and all the major suppliers to the industry.

Given these changes, how can the competitiveness of publication gravure be improved and what strategies should a publication gravure printer use in order to survive in a very competitive European market? With shorter runs in very fast running gravure presses, the turn-around time in the cylinder-engraving department becomes very critical. A Double Ender gravure press for paginations from 16-64 pages, with an alternative up to 96 pages, where only four cylinders are needed, in combination with high-speed laser engraving of the cylinders, may be the answer.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. s. viii, 134
Serie
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2007:4
Nationell ämneskategori
Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4394 (URN)978-91-7178-641-8 (ISBN)
Disputation
2007-06-05, Sal F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning
QC 20100629Tillgänglig från: 2007-05-28 Skapad: 2007-05-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-03-19Bibliografiskt granskad

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Enoksson, EmmiBjurstedt, Anders
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Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap

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