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Influence of pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of instrument dynamics
KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2926-6518
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. EL193-EL199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of variations in pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of the dynamics of isolated instrumental tones is investigated. A full factorial design was used in a listening experiment. The subjects were asked to indicate the perceived dynamics of each stimulus on a scale from pianissimo to fortissimo. Statistical analysis showed that for the instruments included (i.e., clarinet, flute, piano, trumpet, and violin) timbre and loudness had equally large effects, while pitch was relevant mostly for the first three. The results confirmed our hypothesis that loudness alone is not a reliable estimate of the dynamics of musical tones.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2011. Vol. 130, nr 4, s. EL193-EL199
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Tal- och musikkommunikation
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34090DOI: 10.1121/1.3633687ISI: 000295799400011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-82255196536OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-34090DiVA, id: diva2:419086
Anmärkning

QC 20111104 Updated from submitted to published.

Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-25 Skapad: 2011-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-09-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Interactive computer-aided expressive music performance: Analysis, control, modification and synthesis
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Interactive computer-aided expressive music performance: Analysis, control, modification and synthesis
2011 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the design and implementation process of two applications (PerMORFer and MoodifierLive) for the interactive manipulation of music performance. Such applications aim at closing the gap between the musicians, who play the music, and the listeners, who passively listen to it. The goal was to create computer programs that allow the user to actively control how the music is performed. This is achieved by modifying such parameters as tempo, dynamics, and articulation, much like a musician does when playing an instrument. An overview of similar systems and the problems related to their development is given in the first of the included papers.

Four requirements were defined for the applications: (1) to produce a natural, high quality sound; (2) to allow for realistic modifications of the performance parameters; (3) to be easy to control, even for non-musicians; (4) to be portable. Although there are many similarities between PerMORFer and MoodifierLive, the two applications fulfill different requirements. The first two were addressed in PerMORFer, with which the user can manipulate pre-recorded audio performance. The last two were addressed in MoodifierLive, a mobile phone application for gesture-based control of a MIDI score file. The tone-by tone modifications in both applications are based on the KTH rule system for music performance. The included papers describe studies, methods, and algorithms used in the development of the two applications.

Audio recordings of real performance have been used in PerMORFer toachieve a natural sound. The tone-by-tone manipulations defined by the KTH rules first require an analysis of the original performance to separate the tones and estimate their parameters (IOI, duration, dynamics). Available methods were combined with novel solutions, such as an approach to the separation of two overlapping sinusoidal components. On the topic of performance analysis, ad-hoc algorithms were also developed to analyze DJ scratching recordings.

A particularly complex problem is the estimation of a tone’s dynamic level. A study was conducted to identify the perceptual cues that listeners use to determinethe dynamics of a tone. The results showed that timbre is as important as loudness. These findings were applied in a partly unsuccessful attempt to estimate dynamics from spectral features.

The manipulation of tempo is a relatively simple problem, as is that of articulation (i.e. legato-staccato) as long as the tone can be separated. The modification of dynamics on the other hand is more difficult, as was its estimation. Following the findings of the previously mentioned perceptual study, a method to modify both loudness and timbre using a database of spectral models was implemented.

MoodifierLive was used to experiment with performance control interfaces. In particular, the mobile phone’s built-in accelerometer was used to track, analyze, and interpret the movements of the user. Expressive gestures were then mapped to corresponding expressive music performances. Evaluation showed that modes based on natural gestures were easier to use than those created witha top-down approach.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. s. 69
Serie
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2011:12
Nationell ämneskategori
Strömningsmekanik och akustik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34099 (URN)978-91-7501-031-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2011-06-15, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning
QC 20110607Tillgänglig från: 2011-06-07 Skapad: 2011-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-03-22Bibliografiskt granskad

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Totalt: 163 träffar
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