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Surface functionalized nanofibers for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Universtiy, Stockholm, Sweden.
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Materialfysik, MF.
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 245, s. 201-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers functionalized with amine groups (PAN-NH2) were prepared using a simple one-step reaction route. The PAN-NH2 nanofibers were investigated for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption and the kinetic characteristics were evaluated in batch process. The adsorption process showed pH dependence and the maximum Cr(VI) adsorption occurred at pH = 2. The Langmuir adsorption model described well the experimental adsorption data and estimated a maximum loading capacity of 156 mg/g, which is a markedly high value compared to other adsorbents reported. The kinetics studies indicated that the equilibrium was attained after 90 min and the experimental data followed a pseudo-second order model suggesting a chemisorption process as the rate limiting step. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) species on PAN-NH2 was facilitated through both electrostatic attraction and surface complexation. High desorption efficiency (> 90%) of Cr(VI) was achieved using diluted base solutions that may allow the reuse of PAN-NH2 nanofibers.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2014. Vol. 245, s. 201-209
Nyckelord [en]
Nanofibers, Polyacrylonitrile, Adsorption, Chromium
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138316DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2014.02.034ISI: 000335275200025Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84896750603OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-138316DiVA, id: diva2:680847
Anmärkning

QC 20140611. Updated from submitted to published.

Tillgänglig från: 2013-12-18 Skapad: 2013-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Functionalized nanomaterials for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Functionalized nanomaterials for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions
2013 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. s. 76
Serie
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2013:07
Nyckelord
adsorption, chromium(VI), extractant, nanofiber, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138512 (URN)978-91-7501-954-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-12-18, Sal/Hall Darlington, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 11:00
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

QC 20131219

Tillgänglig från: 2013-12-19 Skapad: 2013-12-19Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and their Biological Implications
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and their Biological Implications
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that chromium in the form of Cr(VI) has been deemed to be a class-A human carcinogen. It has been a major contaminant associated with wastewater. Moreover, the existence of heavy metals in aquatic systems is a critical concern for the environment as well as industries that manufacture or consume these particular elements. In order to remove these particular toxic metals, several well-known conventional methods including ion-exchange, filtration and adsorption are used. Amongst these methods, adsorption offers significant advantages such as the low-cost materials, ease of operation and efficiency in comparison to the other conventional methods.

The aim of this work was to develop nanomaterials (particles and fibers) to address some critical issues for the treatment of heavy metals, especially chromium in aqueous systems. Furthermore, the use of nanomaterials and how they relate to nanoscale operations at the biological level has generated considerable concerns in spite of their novel properties.

The first part of this thesis deals with the synthesis and characterizations of Fe3O4, magnetite, as nanoparticles which were further coated with surfactants bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid, Cyanex-301, and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid with the active compound being the thiol (SH) groups, that will suffice as a viable material for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. The proposed mechanism was the complexation between the thiol group on Cyanex-301 and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid, respectively. The effect of different parameters on the adsorption including contact time, initial and final Cr(VI) ion concentration and solution pH was investigated.

The second part of this thesis encompassed the fabrication of flexible nanocomposite materials, with a large surface area and architecture for the removal of Cr(VI) in batch and continuous flow mode. A technique known as electrospinning was used to produce the nanofibers. The flexible yet functional materials architecture has been achieved by growing ZnO nanorod arrays through chemical bath deposition on synthesized electrospun poly-L-lactide nanofibers. Moreover, polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PAN) were synthesized and adapted by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to produce amidoxime polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (A-PAN). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the morphologies and particle sizes whereas Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify either the presence or absence of functional groups for the formation of PAN and A-PAN nanofibers. The optimization of functionalized nanoadsorbents to adsorb Cr(VI) was also carried out to investigate the effect of experimental parameters: contact time, solution pH, initial, final and other metal ion concentration. Commercially manufactured pristine engineered (TiO2, ZnO and SiO2) nanoparticles and lab-made functionalized (Fe3O4 and CeO2) nanoparticles were studied while the powders were suspended in appropriate media by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to identify their cytotoxicity effects.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
KTH: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. s. 76
Serie
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:4
Nyckelord
Nanomaterials, Chromium, Biology
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Forskningsämne
Kemiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179871 (URN)978-91-7595-813-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-01-29, sal D2, Lindstedisvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

QC 20160111

Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-11 Skapad: 2016-01-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad

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