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Analysis of core degradation and relocation phenomena and scenarios in a Nordic-type BWR
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8216-9376
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0683-9136
2016 (English)In: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, ISSN 0029-5493, Vol. 310, p. 125-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Severe Accident Management (SAM) in Nordic Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) employs ex-vessel cooling of core melt debris. The melt is released from the failed vessel and poured into a deep pool of water located under the reactor. The melt is expected to fragment, quench, and form a debris bed, coolable by a natural circulation and evaporation of water. Success of the strategy is contingent upon melt release conditions from the vessel and melt-coolant interaction that determine (i) properties of the debris bed and its coolability (ii) potential for energetic melt-coolant interactions (steam explosions). Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM+) framework is currently under development for quantification of the risks associated with formation of non-coolable debris bed and occurrence of steam explosions, both presenting a credible threats to containment integrity. The ROAAM+ framework consist of loosely coupled models that describe each stage of the accident progression. Core relocation analysis framework provides initial conditions for melt vessel interaction, vessel failure and melt release frameworks. The properties of relocated debris and melt release conditions, including in-vessel and ex-vessel pressure, lower drywell pool depth and temperature, are sensitive to the accident scenarios and timing of safety systems recovery and operator actions. This paper illustrates a methodological approach and relevant data for establishing a connection between core relocation and vessel failure analysis in ROAAM+ approach. MELCOR code is used for analysis of core degradation and relocation phenomena. Properties of relocated debris are obtained as functions of the accident scenario parameters. Pattern analysis is employed in order to characterize typical behavior of core relocation transients. Clustering analysis is employed for grouping of different accident scenarios, which result in similar core relocation behavior and properties of the debris.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 310, p. 125-141
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200215DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.09.029ISI: 000390736400011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84993993448OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-200215DiVA, id: diva2:1070748
Note

QC 20170202

Available from: 2017-02-02 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology for Assessment of Effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Strategy in Nordic BWR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology for Assessment of Effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Strategy in Nordic BWR
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nordic Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) design employs ex-vessel debris coolability as a severe accident management strategy (SAM). In case of a severe accident, the debris ejected from the vessel are expected to fragment, quench and form a debris bed, which is coolable by a natural circulation of water. Success of the existing SAM strategy depends on melt release conditions from the vessel which determine (i) properties of ejected debris and, thus, ex-vessel debris bed coolability, and (ii) potential for energetic melt-coolant interactions (steam explosion). The strategy involves complex interactions between physical phenomena (deterministic) and transient accident scenarios (probabilistic).The aim of this work is further extension, implementation and application of the Risk-Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) to assessment of the severe accident management strategy effectiveness. ROAAM was originally developed for rare, high-consequence hazards, where both aleatory (stochastic) and epistemic (modeling) uncertainties play a significant role in the risk assessment. The main purpose of ROAAM is to provide the input material to an underlying decision making regarding current safety design acceptance, procedures and possible design modifications.This work reports results of (i) development and implementation of probabilistic framework (ROAAM+) for streamlining sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification and risk analysis; (ii) analysis of in-vessel phase of accident progression and melt release conditions in Nordic BWR reactor design with MELCOR code; (iii) analysis of the effect of melt release conditions predicted by MELCOR code on the risk of ex-vessel steam explosion.In ROAAM+, “full models”, such as MELCOR code, are used to develop computationally efficient “surrogate models” to enable extensive uncertainty quantification and failure domain analysis. ROAAM+ analysis identified specific assumptions in MELCOR models, which are currently the major contributors to the uncertainty in the assessment of the SAM effectiveness.

Abstract [sv]

Den generiska ABB-reaktorn (Nordic BWR) använder inneslutningkyling, tryckavlastning och filtrering av utsläpp som strategi för hantering av svåra haverier. Vid ett svårt haveri kommer härdgrus falla ned i nedre primärutrymmet, fragmentera, och att bilda en s.k. grusbädd där resteffekten kan kylas ned med hjälp av naturlig cirkulation av vattnet i bassängen. Framgången med den befintliga strategin beror på härdsmälteförloppet och härdsmältfrigöring från reaktortanken som bestämmer förutsättningarna för: (i) egenskaper för reaktorgruset och dämed även grusbädden, och (ii) ångexplosioner som kan inträffa när härdsmältan faller ned i nedre primärutrymmet.Strategin är konceptuellt enkel, men den innebär komplexa interaktioner mellan fysiska fenomenen och processer, och är mycket känslig för olycksscenarierna. Den kan inte bedömas med hjälp av separerata probabilistiska eller deterministiska metoder på grund av osäkerhet som uppkommer från interaktioner mellan olycksscenarierna och deterministiska fenomen.Därför har så kallad Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) som kombinerar probabilistiska med deterministiska metoder föreslagits som riskvärdering och bedömning huruvida strategin ger ett tillräckligt skydd för omgivningen. Denna metodologi (ROAAM) utvecklades för bedömning av sällsynta högkonsekventa händelser där både aleatoriska (stokastiska) och epistemiska (modelleringsrelaterade) osäkerheter spelar en viktig roll i riskbedömningen.Huvudsyftet med ROAAMs användning är att ge indata för ett underliggande beslutsproblem och möjliggöra robust beslutsfattande gällande nuvarande säkerhetsdesign och procedurer samt möjliga konstruktionsändringar.Detta arbete är inriktat på vidareutveckling av ROAAM-metodologin, som innefattar (i) utveckling och genomförande av probabilistiska ramar för riskanalys och kvantifiering i ROAAM+; (ii) analys av svår haveriutveckling i reaktortanken, härdsmälteförloppet och förutsättningarna för härdsmältfrigöring från reaktortank som analyserats med koden MELCOR; och (iii) riskvärdering av ångexplosion i reaktorinneslutning beroende på förutsättningarna för härdsmältfrigöring från reaktortank.I ROAAM+ används "fullmodeller", såsom MELCOR-koden, för att utveckla beräkningseffektiva "surrogatmodeller" för att möjliggöra omfattande analys av osäkerhetsfaktorer och identifiera skadedomäner. ROAAM+ analys identifierade specifika antaganden i MELCOR-modeller, som för närvarande är de viktigaste bidragsgivarna till osäkerheten i bedömningen av SAM-effektiviteten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 77
Series
TRITA-SCI-FOU ; 2019:08
Keywords
Severe accident management, sensitivity, uncertainty, MELCOR, ROAAM, Svår haverihantering, känslighet och osäkerhetsanalys, MELCOR, ROAAM
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-242353 (URN)978-91-7873-103-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-27, FA31, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190130

Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved

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Galushin, SergeyKudinov, Pavel

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