kth.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Effect of Fluid Bypassing on the Experimentally Obtained Darcy and Non-Darcy Permeability Parameters of Ceramic Foam Filters
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7957-348X
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5976-2697
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9775-0382
2017 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ceramic foam filters (CFFs) are used to remove solid particles and inclusions from molten metal. In general, molten metal which is poured on the top of a CFF needs to reach a certain height to build the required pressure (metal head) to prime the filter. To estimate the required metal head, it is necessary to obtain permeability coefficients using permeametry experiments. It has been mentioned in the literature that to avoid fluid bypassing, during permeametry, samples need to be sealed. However, the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients seems not to be explored. Therefore, in this research, the focus was on studying the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients as well as the empirically obtained Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients. Specifically, the aim of the research was to investigate the effect of fluid bypassing on the liquid permeability of 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina CFFs. In addition, the experimental data were compared to the numerically modeled findings. Both studies showed that no sealing results in extremely poor estimates of the pressure gradients and Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients for all studied filters. The average deviations between the pressure gradients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 57.2, 56.8, and 61.3 pct. The deviations between the Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples found to be 9, 20, and 31 pct. The deviations between the non-Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 59, 58, and 63 pct.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017. Vol. 48, no 1, p. 197-207
Keywords [en]
Alumina, Bandpass filters, Ceramic foams, Ceramic materials, Liquid metals, Metals, Pressure effects, Pressure gradient, Average deviation, Ceramic foam filters, Commercial alumina, Liquid permeability, Non-Darcy, Pores per inches, Solid particles
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201008DOI: 10.1007/s11663-016-0819-2ISI: 000392295500021Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84994477288OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-201008DiVA, id: diva2:1072274
Note

QC 20170207

Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mathematical and Experimental Study on Filtration of Solid Inclusions from Molten Aluminium and Steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical and Experimental Study on Filtration of Solid Inclusions from Molten Aluminium and Steel
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aluminum and steel have been the most produced metal and alloy, respectively, for many years. Their extensive use in various industries, their fundamental role in our everyday life, and their excellent recycling characteristics are the major driving forces for development of their production towards more sustainable processes. A successful integration and application of molten metal filtration from unwanted inclusions in production processes could result in reducing scrap, rework and would provide a cleaner molten metal which could lead to production of metallic materials with enhanced mechanical properties.  Filtration of aluminum melts by ceramic foam filters is an established process in aluminum industry. Ceramic filters are also used in steel foundries to remove inclusions from the melt prior to casting to the mold. However, the use of ceramic filters is either limited to specific types of alloys or casts or to specific filters with large pores and openings. As a result, utilization of ceramic filters in the steel industry has limitations in capturing inclusions, where specifically small size inclusions may not be captured.  

 This research work aims at contributing to the global effort in developing the molten metal production processes to become more sustainable and to increase the quality of the final product. To be specific, it is aimed at shedding more light into filtration applications and the use of ceramic filters for removal of solid non-metallic inclusions from molten aluminum and steel. Thus, permeability characteristics of single 30, 50, and 80 Pore Per Inch (PPI) alumina Ceramic Foam Filter (CFF) grades as well as stacks of three 30, three 50, and three 80 PPI alumina CFF grades were both experimentally and numerically obtained and studied. This provides the information needed to estimate the pressure required to prime and/or push the molten aluminum through the filters. The pressure could either be built up by gravitational or other forces. It has been shown recently that it is possible to prime such filters with electromagnetic forces and filter solid inclusions from molten aluminum. Lastly, physical refining of molten steel from solid alumina inclusions through monolithic extruded square-celled alumina ceramic filter was investigated and studied with a developed mathematical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model as well as the particle trajectories of inclusions in the size range of 1 to 100 [µm]. 

 The experimentally obtained permeability characteristics as well as the obtained pressure gradient profiles of the single 30, 50, and 80 PPI CFFs were compared to previous research findings from the literature. Overall, a good agreement between the current and previous findings was found. It was also shown that fluid bypassing should be avoided during permeability experiments, otherwise deviations as high as 60% may occur. It was also revealed that similar permeability characteristics for the stacked filters, compared to single filters, could be achieved. However, an about three times higher pressure gradient or pressure needs to be applied when using a stack of three identical PPI filters compared to using single filters. The numerical simulations also validated the experimental findings of the permeability experiments.

 The CFD simulations and particle trajectories of the solid alumina inclusions in molten steel through the monolithic alumina filter revealed that it was possible to capture all particles larger than 50 [µm]. However, it was not possible to capture all particles smaller than 50 [µm] due to the applied simulation approach as well as current simulation limitations in the software. 

Abstract [sv]

Aluminium och stål har varit den mest producerade metallen respektive legeringen under många år. Deras omfattande användning i olika industrier, deras grundläggande roll i vårt vardagliga liv och deras utmärkta återvinningsegenskaper utgör de stora drivkrafterna för utvecklingen av en produktion mot mer hållbara processer. En framgångsrik integrering och tillämpning av smält metallfiltrering från oönskade inneslutningar i produktionsprocesser kan resultera i minskningar av skrot och omarbetning samt skulle ge en renare smält metall som kan leda till en produktion av metalliska material med förbättrade mekaniska egenskaper. Filtrering av aluminiumsmältor med keramiska skumfilter utgör en etablerad process inom aluminiumindustrin. Keramiska filter används också i stålgjuterier för att avlägsna inneslutningar från smältan före gjutning i en form. Användningen av keramiska filter är dock antingen begränsad till specifika typer av legeringar eller gjutgods eller till specifika filter med stora porer och öppningar. Som ett resultat av detta har användningen av keramiska filter i stålindustrin begränsningar när det gäller att fånga upp inneslutningar, där specifikt små inneslutningar inte kan fångas upp.

 Detta forskningsarbete syftar till att bidra till det globala arbetet med att utveckla processerna för tillverkning av smält metall för att bli mer hållbara och för att höja kvaliteten på slutprodukten. För att vara specifik syftar det till att sprida mer ljus gällande filtreringsapplikationer och användningen av keramiska filter för att avlägsna fasta icke-metalliska inneslutningar från smält aluminium och stål. Således bestämdes permeabilitetsegenskaper för enkla 30, 50 och 80 porer per tum (PPI) aluminiumoxid keramiska skumfilter (CFF) kvaliteter såväl som staplar av tre 30, tre 50 och tre 80 PPI aluminiumoxid CFF-kvaliteter baserat på experimentella och numeriska studier. Detta ger den information som behövs för att uppskatta det tryck som krävs för att grunda och/eller trycka det smälta aluminiumet genom filtren. Trycket kan antingen byggas upp av gravitationskrafter eller andra krafter. Det har nyligen visat sig att det är möjligt att grunda sådana filter med elektromagnetiska krafter och filtrera fasta inneslutningar från smält aluminium. Slutligen undersöktes och studerades fysisk raffinering av smält stål från fasta aluminiumoxidinneslutningar genom användande av ett monolitiskt extruderat fyrkantscelligt aluminiumoxidkeramiskt filter med en utvecklad matematisk Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modell samt partikelbanorna för inneslutningar i storleksintervallet 1 till 100 [um].

 De experimentellt erhållna permeabilitetsegenskaperna såväl som de erhållna tryckgradientprofilerna för de enskilda 30, 50 och 80 PPI CFF:erna jämfördes med tidigare forskningsresultat från litteraturen. Överlag så var överensstämmelse mellan nuvarande och tidigare resultat god. Det visade sig också att det var viktigt att vätskan inte tog genvägar under permeabilitetsexperiment för att inte erhålla avvikelser så höga som 60 %. Det visade sig också att liknande permeabilitetsegenskaper för de staplade filtren som för de enskilda filtren kunde uppnås. Ett ungefär tre gånger högre tryckgradient eller tryck måste dock appliceras när man använder en stapel med tre identiska PPI-filter jämfört när enstaka filter används. De numeriska simuleringarna validerade också de experimentella resultaten från permeabilitetsexperimenten.

 CFD-simuleringarna och partikelbanorna för de fasta aluminiumoxidinneslutningarna i smält stål genom det monolitiska aluminiumoxidfiltret visade att det var möjligt att fånga upp alla partiklar större än 50 [µm]. Det var dock inte möjligt att fånga upp alla partiklar mindre än 50 [µm] på grund av den användande simuleringsmetoden samt de nuvarande simuleringsbegränsningar i programvaran.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023. p. 105
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2023:3
Keywords
Filtration, Porous Media, Permeability, Water modeling, Fluid Bypassing, Stacked Filters, Ceramic Foam Filter, Monolithic Ceramic Filter, Alumina CFF, Particle Tracing, Aluminum Filtration, Steel Filtration, CFD, Alumina Inclusion, Filtrering, porösa medier, permeabilitet, vattenmodellering, vätskebypass, staplade filter, keramiskt skumfilter, monolitiskt keramiskt filter, aluminiumoxid CFF, partikelspårning, aluminiumfiltrering, stålfiltrering, CFD, aluminiumoxidinkludering
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324626 (URN)978-91-8040-508-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-03-31, Sefström / https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/62925916196, Brinellvägen 23 KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-03-09 Created: 2023-03-09 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records

Akbarnejad, ShahinSaffari Pour, MohsenJonsson, Lage Tord IngemarJönsson, Pӓr Göran

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Akbarnejad, ShahinSaffari Pour, MohsenJonsson, Lage Tord IngemarJönsson, Pӓr Göran
By organisation
Materials Science and Engineering
In the same journal
Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 252 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf