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POTORI: A Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect Architecture for Data Centers
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6704-6554
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 401-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several optical interconnect architectures inside data centers (DCs) have been proposed to efficiently handle the rapidly growing traffic demand. However, not many works have tackled the interconnects at top-of-rack (ToR), which have a large impact on the performance of the data center networks (DCNs) and can introduce serious scalability limitations due to their high cost and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a passive optical ToR interconnect architecture (POTORI) to replace the conventional electronic packet switch (EPS) in the access tier of DCNs. In the data plane, POTORI relies on a passive optical coupler to interconnect the servers within the rack and interfaces toward the aggregation/core tiers. The POTORI control plane is based on a centralized rack controller responsible for managing the communications among the servers in the rack. We propose a cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmission inside the rack. We also introduce and evaluate a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for POTORI, namely largest first (LF). Extensive simulation results show that, with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers, POTORI and the proposed LF strategy are able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs under realistic DC traffic scenarios, outperforming conventional EPSs. On the other hand, with slower tunable optical transceivers, a careful configuration of the network parameters (e.g., maximum cycle time of the MAC protocol) is necessary to obtain a good network performance in terms of the average packet delay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017. Vol. 9, no 5, p. 401-411
Keywords [en]
Data center networks, Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), Medium access control (MAC), Optical interconnect architectures
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206392DOI: 10.1364/JOCN.9.000401ISI: 000401412300007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85019551371OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-206392DiVA, id: diva2:1092320
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170613

Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect for Data Center Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect for Data Center Networks
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optical networks offering ultra-high capacity and low energy consumption per bit are considered as a good option to handle the rapidly growing traffic volume inside data center (DCs). However, most of the optical interconnect architectures proposed for DCs so far are mainly focused on the aggregation/core tiers of the data center networks (DCNs), while relying on the conventional top-of-rack (ToR) electronic packet switches (EPS) in the access tier. A large number of ToR switches in the current DCNs brings serious scalability limitations due to high cost and power consumption. Thus, it is important to investigate and evaluate new optical interconnects tailored for the access tier of the DCNs.

We propose and evaluate a passive optical ToR interconnect (POTORI) architecture for the access tier. The data plane of the POTORI consists mainly of passive components to interconnect the servers within the rack as well as the interfaces toward the aggregation/core tiers. Using the passive components makes it possible to significantly reduce power consumption while achieving high reliability in a cost-efficient way.

Meanwhile, our proposed POTORI’s control plane is based on a centralized rack controller, which is responsible for coordinating the communications among the servers in the rack. It can be reconfigured by software-defined networking (SDN) operation. A cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol and a dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm are designed for the POTORI to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmission inside the rack.

Simulation results show that under realistic DC traffic scenarios, the POTORI with the proposed DBA algorithm is able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers. Moreover, we further quantify the impact of different network configuration parameters on the average packet delay. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 31
Keywords
Optical communications, data center interconnects, MAC protocol, dynamic bandwidth allocation.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206421 (URN)978-91-7729-387-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-06-12, Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Electrum, Kistagången 16, Kista, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170503

Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-08-15Bibliographically approved
2. Optical Interconnects for Next Generation Data Centers: Architecture Design and Resource Allocation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical Interconnects for Next Generation Data Centers: Architecture Design and Resource Allocation
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current data center architectures based on blade servers and elec- tronic packet switches face several problems, e.g., limited resource utilization, high power consumption and cost, when handling the rapidly growing of data traffic. Optical networks offering ultra-high capacity and requiring low energy consumption are considered as a good option to address these problems. This thesis presents new data center architectures based on optical interconnects and transmissions, and evaluates performance by extensive simulations.

The first main contribution of the thesis is to introduce a passive optical top-of-rack interconnect (POTORI) architecture. The data plane of POTORI mainly consists of passive components to interconnect the servers within the rack. Using the passive components makes it possible to significantly reduce power consumption while achieving high reliability in a cost-efficient way. In addition, the POTORI’s control plane is based on a centralized controller, which is responsible for coordinating the communications among the servers in the rack. A cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol and a dy- namic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm are designed for the POTORI to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmis- sion inside the rack. Simulation results show that under realistic DC traffic scenarios, the POTORI with the proposed DBA algorithm is able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers.

The second main contribution of the thesis is to investigate rack-scale disaggregated data center (DDC) architecture for improving resource utiliza- tion. In contrast to the traditional DC with blade servers that integrate various types of resources (e.g., central processing unit (CPU), memory) in a chassis, the rack-scale DDC contains fully decoupled resources held on differ- ent blades, referred to as resource blades. The resource blades are required to be interconnected within the rack by an ultra-high bandwidth optical in- terconnect through the optical interfaces (OIs). A resource allocation (RA) algorithm is proposed to efficiently schedule the resources in the DDC for virtual machine requests. Results show that with sufficient bandwidth on the OIs, the rack-scale DDC with the proposed RA algorithm can achieve 20% higher resource utilization and make 30% more revenue comparing to the traditional DC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 61
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:18
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244840 (URN)978-91-7873-108-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-29, Ka-Sal B (Sal Peter Weissglas), Electrum, Kungl Tekniska högskolan, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved

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