Ändra sökning
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Analysis of historic copper patinas. Influence of inclusions on patina uniformity
KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2206-0082
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id 298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century. All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods. The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite (Cu2O) and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite (Cu4SO4(OH)6). The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition. The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers. The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
MDPI AG , 2017. Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id 298
Nyckelord [en]
Antlerite, Atmospheric corrosion, Bilayer, Brochantite, Cuprite, Historic copper, Inclusions, Micro-galvanic effect, Patina, Volta potential, Antimony, Copper corrosion, Corrosion, Lead, Metallic matrix composites, Ores, Substrates, Bi-layer, Galvanic effect, Copper
Nationell ämneskategori
Korrosionsteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207437DOI: 10.3390/ma10030298ISI: 000400863500081Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85015630454OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207437DiVA, id: diva2:1098198
Anmärkning

QC 20170523

Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-23 Skapad: 2017-05-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Atmospheric corrosion of copper and copper-based alloys in architecture: from native surface oxides to fully developed patinas
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Atmospheric corrosion of copper and copper-based alloys in architecture: from native surface oxides to fully developed patinas
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Copper and copper-based alloys are commonly used in both ancient and modern architecture. This requires an in-depth fundamental and applied understanding on their atmospheric corrosion behavior at different climatic, environmental and pollutant levels and how these parameters influence e.g. corrosion initiation, patina characteristics, aesthetic appearances, corrosion rates, and runoff rates. This doctoral thesis elucidates the role of native surface oxides on the corrosion performance, corrosion initiation, formation and evolution of corrosion products from hours to months, years and even centuries, to diffuse dispersion of metals from Cu metal/Cu alloy surfaces focusing on the roles of alloying elements, microstructure, and deposition of chlorides. In-depth investigations have been performed at both laboratory and field conditions on commercial Cu metal and copper-based alloys of a golden alloy (Cu5Zn5Al1Sn) and Sn-bronzes (Cu4Sn, Cu6Sn). Patina characteristics and relations to the presence of microstructural inclusions have in addition been investigated for historic patinas of Cu metal roofing of different age and origin, highlighted with data for a 400 years old Cu patina exposed at urban conditions.

A multi-analytical approach comprising microscopic, spectroscopic and electrochemical methods was employed for in-depth investigations of surface characteristics and bulk properties. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was utilized to characterize the microstructure. Auger electron spectroscopy (scanning-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) were employed for surface chemical compositional analysis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to assess the amount of metal release from the patinas. Cathodic reduction (CR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to assess the amount and corrosion resistance of corrosion products formed at laboratory conditions. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (CRM), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) were used to identify the phases of corrosion products. Colorimetry was used to assess surface appearances.

Cu5Zn5Al1Sn and Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn exhibit favorable bulk properties with respect to corrosion in terms of smaller grain size compared with Cu metal and show non-significant surface compositional variations. The presence of multi-component native oxides predominantly composed of Cu2O enriched with Sn-oxides on Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn, and with ZnO, SnO2 and Al2O3 on Cu5Zn5Al1Sn, improves the barrier properties of the native surface oxides and the overall corrosion resistance of Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn and Cu5Zn5Al1Sn. The formation of Zn/Al/Sn-containing corrosion products (e.g. Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O) significantly reduces the corrosion rate of Cu5Zn5Al1Sn in chloride-rich environments. Alloying with Sn reduces the corrosion rate of Sn-bronze at urban environments of low chloride levels but results in enhanced corrosion rates at chloride-rich marine conditions.

A clear dual-layer structure patina was observed for centuries-old naturally patinated copper metal with an origin from the roof of Queen Anne's Summer Palace in Prague, the Czech Republic. The patina comprises an inner sub-layer of Cu2O and an outer sub-layer of Cu4SO4(OH)6/Cu3SO4(OH)4. Abundant relatively noble inclusions (mainly rosiaite (PbSb2O6)) were observed and incorporated in both the copper matrix and the patina. The largest inclusions of higher nobility than the surrounding material create significant micro-galvanic effects that result in a fragmentized patina and large thickness ratios between the Cu4SO4(OH)6/Cu3SO4(OH)4 and the Cu2O sub-layer, investigated via a statistical analysis of inclusions and patina characteristics of eight different historic urban copper patinas.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. s. 74
Serie
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018: 54
Nationell ämneskategori
Korrosionsteknik
Forskningsämne
Kemiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238715 (URN)978-91-7729-994-3 (ISBN)
Disputation
2018-11-30, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

QC 20181109

Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-09 Skapad: 2018-11-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-09Bibliografiskt granskad

Open Access i DiVA

Fulltext saknas i DiVA

Övriga länkar

Förlagets fulltextScopus

Personposter BETA

Chang, TingruOdnevall Wallinder, IngerLeygraf, Christopher

Sök vidare i DiVA

Av författaren/redaktören
Chang, TingruOdnevall Wallinder, IngerLeygraf, Christopher
Av organisationen
Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap
I samma tidskrift
Materials
Korrosionsteknik

Sök vidare utanför DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetricpoäng

doi
urn-nbn
Totalt: 438 träffar
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf