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Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
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2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Käppala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87–95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Käppala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O3/m3) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O3/m3) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Käppala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1As and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2017. Vol. 176, p. 342-351
Keywords [en]
Activated carbon, Biomarkers, Ozonation, Pharmaceuticals, Rainbow trout, Wastewater
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207305DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.127ISI: 000399849300039Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85014414522OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207305DiVA, id: diva2:1109063
Note

QC 20170613

Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pharmaceuticals – improved removal from municipal wastewater and their occurrence in the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pharmaceuticals – improved removal from municipal wastewater and their occurrence in the Baltic Sea
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pharmaceutical residues are found in the environment due to extensive use in human and veterinary medicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have a potential impact in non-target organisms. Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove APIs.

In this thesis, two related matters are addressed 1) evaluation of advanced treatment to remove APIs from municipal wastewater and 2) the prevalence and degradation of APIs in the Baltic Sea.

A stationary pilot plant with nanofiltration (NF) and a mobile pilot plant with activated carbon and ozonation were designed to study the removal of APIs at four WWTPs. By NF, removal reached 90%, but the retentate needed further treatment. A predictive model of the rejection of APIs by NF was developed based on the variables: polarizability, globularity, ratio hydrophobic to polar water accessible surface and charge. The pilot plants with granular and powdered activated carbon (GAC) and (PAC) removed more than 95% of the APIs. Screening of activated carbon products was essential, because of a broad variation in adsorption capacity. Recirculation of PAC or longer contact time, increased the removal of APIs. Ozonation with 5-7 g/m3 ozone resulted in 87-95% removal of APIs. Elevated activity and transcription of biomarkers indicated presence of xenobiotics in regular effluent. Chemical analysis of APIs, together with analysis of biomarkers, were valuable and showed that GAC-filtration and ozonation can be implemented to remove APIs in WWTPs, with decreased biomarker responses.

Sampling of the Baltic Sea showed presence of APIs in 41 out of 43 locations. A developed grey box model predicted concentration and half-life of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea to be 1.8 ng/L and 1300 d respectively.

In conclusion, APIs were removed to 95% by GAC or PAC treatment. The additional treatment resulted in lower biomarker responses than today and some APIs were shown to be widespread in the aquatic environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 150
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018-62
Keywords
Advanced wastewater treatment, WWTP, pilot plant, pharmaceutical residues, removal of pharmaceuticals, activated carbon, ozonation, nanofiltration, biomarker, Baltic Sea
National Category
Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239307 (URN)978-91-7873-047-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, MistraPharma
Note

QC 20181120

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved

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