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Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: Effects on nature protection and socioeconomic development
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management. (Environmental Management and Assessment)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8313-5845
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management. (Environmental Management and Assessment)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1640-8946
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7123-1824
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2017 (English)In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 68, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Brazilian native vegetation supports essential ecosystem services and biodiversity for the global society, whileland use competition may intensify around the increasing needs for food, fibre and bioenergy. The Brazilian Forest Actof 2012 amplified a market-based mechanism for offsetting native vegetation deficits in private farmlands. Thismechanism enables a large-scale trading system allowing landholders to offset their own deficits of native vegetationby purchasing certificates associated with a surplus of native vegetation from other landholders. This mechanism is analternative for the more expensive restoration of native vegetation on own land. The launching of the mechanism nowdepends on specific regulations at state level, which may include geographical restrictions for offsetting deficits. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the effects in nature protection and socio-economic development of different offsettingimplementation alternatives. Our findings suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario the offsetting mechanism mayhave little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation, because most of the offsetting is likely to takeplace where native vegetation is already protected by prevailing legislations. We concluded that it is possible tomaximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism without undermining productiveland. This would be possible if regulations ensure additionality in nature protection while enabling a self-sustainingmechanism for income generation for small-scale family farmers in the poorest region of Brazil, protecting biodiversityand counteracting major trade-offs between ecosystem services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 68, p. 189-199
Keywords [en]
Native vegetation, Offsetting, Brazilian Forest Act, Land use policy, Additionality, Socio-economic development
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211190DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.07.014ISI: 000413126200019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85027278145OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-211190DiVA, id: diva2:1128005
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QC 20170808

Available from: 2017-07-20 Created: 2017-07-20 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Brazilian public protection regulations and the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brazilian public protection regulations and the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brazil is significant for sustaining ecosystems services and biodiversity of global importance. However, the expansion of forestry and agriculture to supply national and international markets often results in loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Public protection regulations play a crucial role in setting limits for agricultural expansion. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing policies in the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with the native vegetation in Brazil. The Land Use Governance Assessment (LUGA) model was developed to simulate the implementation of existing public protection regulations, in particular, the Brazilian Forest Act.

The results suggest that command and control regulations do not protect about 28 % of the above-ground carbon in Brazil. The regularisation process of undesignated land is expected to expand protection to an additional 18 % of the above-ground carbon stocks, leaving about 10 % of the carbon stocks unprotected. On the other hand, the preservation of viable populations of several threatened mammal species is highly dependent on an urgent expansion of protected areas in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. Furthermore, the results from this thesis indicate that offsetting legal deficit of native vegetation may have little or no additional effects on the protection of native vegetation. The potential loss of forest protection due to reduced legal reserve requirements in the Amazon could potentially range from 6.5 Mha to more than 15 Mha.

There are critical gaps in the land use policies in Brazil that threaten the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with native vegetation. Market-driven mechanisms can potentially contribute to filling this gap, protecting nature beyond the legal requirements. Yet, additional regulations may be necessary to improve the efficiency of the trading system of legal deficit of native vegetation among farmers, ensuring environmental and socio-economic functions of this system, and effectively balancing production with conservation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 64
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1920
Keywords
Brazil; Native vegetation, forest conservation, Brazilian Forest Act, Protected areas, Ecosystem services, Biodiversity
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251513 (URN)978-91-7873-234-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-11, Room F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
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QC20190515

Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved

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