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Architecture exploration for distributed embedded systems: A gap analysis in automotive domain
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2649-5921
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9314-545X
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
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2017 (English)In: 2017 12th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2017 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7993377Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A large body of work can be found in literature on Design Space Exploration (DSE) methods for distributed embedded system architecting (DESA). However, almost none of these methods is successfully adopted in automotive industry. To clarify the reasons, this paper 1) analyzes the current state of the art (SOTA) on DSE methods for DESA through a systematic literature study, focusing on the assumed architecting process and concerns; 2) investigates the state of practice (SOP) on DESA in the automotive industry through a literature study and interviews with experienced system architects from five different automotive manufacturers; and 3) analyzes the gap between SOTA and SOP, and thereby discusses potential improvements of DSE methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017. article id 7993377
Keywords [en]
Automotive industry, Systems analysis
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214377DOI: 10.1109/SIES.2017.7993377ISI: 000427108300021Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85028562956ISBN: 9781538631669 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-214377DiVA, id: diva2:1140367
Conference
12th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2017, Ecole Nationale superieure d'Electrotechnique, d'Electronique, d'Informatique et des Telecommunications (INP-ENSEEIHT)Toulouse, France, 14 June 2017 through 16 June 2017
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-06260 ; CAT311
Note

QC 20170912

Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Automated Support for the Architecting of Distributed Embedded Systems: Methods and Analysis for Industrial Adoption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Support for the Architecting of Distributed Embedded Systems: Methods and Analysis for Industrial Adoption
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The architecture design complexity of modern embedded systems, such as in the automotive domain, is growing due to the rapidly evolved functionalities, the increasing amount of interactions between functions and computation nodes, and the stringent extra-functional requirements. Architecture design is crucial since it affects nontrivial system properties such as safety, cost, performance of functionalities and also the development time. An important enabler to deal with this complexity is to provide computer aided architecture design. This thesis focuses on such support for Design Space Exploration (DSE), relying on a model-based design (MBD) environment.

The goal of this thesis is to improve the industrial adoption of DSE methods to facilitate the architecture design of distributed embedded systems in the automotive industry. The main contributions of this thesis are as follows: (1) Applying architecture recovery in the automotive industry to extract architecture models from legacy ECU source code. The recovered architecture models can be used to facilitate system understanding, to verify the software implementation against its specification and also to enable DSE for architecture design. (2) A systematic gap analysis was conducted between the state-of-the-art DSE methods and the industrial needs, through literature studies and interviews with experienced system architects. Identified gaps are analyzed from the following perspectives: Architecting scenarios, architectural decisions, quality attributes, cost model, procurement strategy, system variability and functional safety. (3) A new problem formulation was proposed to reduce the design space by utilizing the features of evolutionary architecting and the AUTOSAR layered architecture. (4) In order to enhance the flexibility of the DSE methods by enabling the customizability of the architectural constraints, an automatic transformation method is proposed to translate formally described architectural constraints into the corresponding mixed integer linear programming(MILP) constraints, commonly used for DSE. (5) This thesis also investigates the potential impacts of vehicular communication on the future architecture of automotive embedded systems from the timing perspective through a case study to enable a commercial truck with cooperative driving functionalities. The receiving bias problem was identified during the case study and effective architectural solutions were proposed. The case study also showed that the adoption of vehicular communication would not have significant architectural impacts in terms of timing.

Abstract [sv]

Moderna inbyggda system blir alltmer intelligenta och uppkopplade, och därmed alltmer komplexa med ökade krav på funktionella och icke-funktionella egenskaper. Arkitekturdesign behöver alltså spela en ännu viktigare roll i att bedöma systemegenskaper såsom säkerhet, kostnad, funktionalitet och utvecklingstid. En viktig förutsättning för att hantera denna komplexitet är att tillhandahålla modeller samt en modellbaserad systemutvecklingsmiljö (MBD). Denna avhandling fokuserar på sådant stöd med betoning på utforskningen av designrymden, ”Design Space Exploration” (DSE).

Målet med denna avhandling är att underlätta den industriella tillämpningen av DSE-metoder för arkitekturdesign av distribuerade inbyggda system inom bilindustrin. Huvudbidragen är följande: (1) en metod för automatisk extrahering av systemarkitekturmodeller från befintlig ECU-källkod för en ökad design-återanvändning inom bilindustrin. De återskapade arkitekturmodellerna kan användas för att stödja systemförståelse, för att verifiera programmets implementering mot dess specifikation och även för att möjliggöra DSE för arkitekturdesign. (2) En systematisk analys av tillgängliga DSE-metoder och industriella behov baserad på litteraturstudier och intervjuer av erfarna systemarkitekter. Identifierade brister analyserades ur följandeper spektiv: Arkitektur-scenarier, designbeslut, kvalitetsattributer, kostnadsmodell, optimeringsstrategi, systemvariation och funktionell säkerhet. (3) En metod för en förfinad problemformulering för effektiv utforskningen av designrymden genom att analysera arkitekturens evolution och tillämpa AUTOSAR referensarkitektur. (4) en metod för automatisk översättning av relevanta designparameter och preferens till motsvarande matematiska formulering i MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programing) för DSE, vilken medför ökad flexibilitet i praktisk användning av DSE-metoderna. (5) Denna avhandling undersöker också den potentiella inverkan av kommunikationslösningar på systems funktionella och icke-funktionella egenskaper genom en fallstudie för att möjliggöra kooperativa körfunktioner hos en kommersiell lastbil. Avvikelserna identifierades och effektiva arkitektoniska lösningar föreslogs. Fallstudien visade att fordonskommunikation inte skulle ha betydande arkitektoniska effekter på tidtagning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 50
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2017:10
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249626 (URN)978-91-7729-432-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-14, Gladan, Brinellvägen 85, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190415

Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-14 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved

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