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The Business Value of BIM: Elaborating on Content and Perspective
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The expectations on digitalization and Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) are high. The high expectations are reflected in an increasing interest for the term business value of BIM. However, the practical and theoretical understanding of its content and perspective is characterized by rationalism and positivism commercially promoted by industry. This thesis aims to reflect on, problematize and extend the theoretical understanding of the content and perspective of the business value of BIM. Perceptions about business value of BIM, the associated challenges and costs and the role of the business of BIM in a wider socio-technical context are examined among Swedish and international AEC industry actors and a large Swedish public infrastructure client. To extend the understanding of the content and perspective of the business value of BIM, the rational and process-oriented theories on the business value of IT are combined with the more interpretive and hermeneutic socio-technical systems theory. A social and cognitive dimension is thus added to the understanding of the business value of BIM and business value of IT.  By combining the two research fields and contributing with the socio-technical perspective to the theoretical understanding of business value, this thesis contributes with theory development of the understanding of business value BIM and business value of IT.  For practitioners, the thesis shows the complex, multi-dimensional and challenging aspects of implementing BIM for business value. The journey of perspectives in this thesis from positivism towards increased interpretivism also sheds light on the implications of when different perspectives exert influence on a research field (hegemony) and wishes to provide a contrast and balance to the rational and positivistic perspectives in BIM research. It also wishes to inspire future BIM research to broaden the theoretical perspectives.

Abstract [sv]

Förväntningarna på digitalisering och Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) i samhällsbyggnadssektorn är höga och reflekteras i ett ökande intresse för affärsnyttan av BIM. Den praktiska och teoretiska förståelsen av innehåll och perspektivet i affärsnyttan av BIM har karaktäriserats av rationalism och positivism som upprätthållits i kommersiella syften. Denna avhandling syftar till att reflektera över, problematisera och utöka förståelsen av innehållet och perspektivet av affärsnyttan av BIM. Den upplevda affärsnyttan av BIM, de associerade utmaningarna och kostnaderna och rollen av affärsnyttan av BIM i ett bredare sociotekniskt perspektiv undersöks bland aktörer i den svenska och internationella samhällsbyggnadssektorn samt hos en stor svenskt offentlig beställare av infrastruktur. För att problematisera över och utöka förståelsen av affärsnyttan av BIM kombinerar denna avhandlingen de rationella och process orienterade teorierna inom business value of IT med den mer hermeneutiska socio-technical systems teorin. Genom att kombinera dessa två fält bidrar avhandlingen med ett socialt och kognitivt perspektiv till den teoretiska förståelsen av affärsnytta. Det teoretiska bidraget består således av teoriutveckling. För praktiker belyser avhandlingen de komplexa, multi-dimensionella och utmananande aspekterna med att implementera BIM för affärsnytta. Resan i perspektiv från positivism och rationalism mot ökad interpretivism i avhandlingen belyser också implikationerna av hur olika perspektiv får inflytande över ett forskningsfält (hegemoni) och önskar bidra med en kontrast och balans till det rationella och positivistiska perspektivet i BIM forskning. Det är också förhoppningen att avhandlingens resa i perspektiv kan inspirera framtida forskning på BIM att vidga de teoretiska vyerna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 62
Series
TRITA-FOB ; 2017:6
Keywords [en]
Business value, Building Information Modelling, socio-technical
National Category
Construction Management Business Administration
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214617ISBN: 978-91-85783-81-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-214617DiVA, id: diva2:1142109
Public defence
2017-11-17, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20170920

Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2017-09-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The perceived business value of BIM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The perceived business value of BIM
2014 (English)In: eWork and eBusiness in Architecture, Engineering and Construction - Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Product and Process Modelling, ECPPM 2014, CRC Press, 2014, p. 21-25Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The economic effects of BIM are increasingly gaining interest. Understanding how to create business value from BIM is becoming of strategic concern for BIM users. The business effects of BIM have been examined in research, yet little is known about the actual economic consequences of BIM. Previous research has focused on BIM from a practical approach where efforts have been made towards measuring the performance of BIM. The purpose of this paper is to explore how actors in the Swedish construction industry perceive the business effects of BIM, but also what organizational prerequisites need to be in place for value creation in BIM. The findings indicate that the industry mainly perceives desired effects of BIM for the future and that few measure the economic effects of BIM. Most importantly, there is a need to understand the organisational prerequisites for value creation through BIM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press, 2014
Keywords
Construction industry, Process engineering, Business value, Economic consequences, Organisational, Swedishs, Value creation, Economic and social effects
National Category
Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167379 (URN)000380490000004 ()2-s2.0-84907378175 (Scopus ID)9781138027107 (ISBN)
Conference
10th European Conference on Product and Process Modelling, ECPPM 2014, 17 September 2014 through 19 September 2014, Vienna
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2017-09-25Bibliographically approved
2. A proposed BIM business value model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A proposed BIM business value model
2014 (English)In: Proceedings 30th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, ARCOM 2014, 2014, p. 633-642Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The business value of IT investments has long engaged researchers in fields of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT). Only in recent years has the business value of IT investments received attention in a construction industry context. Particularly, research on the business value of Building Information Modeling (BIM) has emerged in research during the last decade. However, much of the studies do not account for how organizational and business factors influence the value creation process. The research also tends to emphasize what the economic effects of BIM are rather than exploring how these values are created and under what organizational conditions. Hence, the aim is to explore how business value of BIM can be developed in an organizational and business process context. Building on models of IT business value creation from the IT/IS research field, together with findings from interviews on the perceived economic outcomes of BIM, a tentative BIM Business Value Model is proposed that accounts for organizational and business process factors. The model is then used to analyse and suggest what organizational and business related activities that need further attention from research in order to enable BIM business value creation. The findings indicate that among these activities are managing stakeholder requirements, incentives for BIM use, joint inter-organizational activities with partners and delivery of key information to operations and maintenance. A prerequisite for value creation with BIM is however to be able to manage organizational change if BIM is to have a potential impact on performance.

Keywords
Construction industry, Information management, Information systems
National Category
Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168534 (URN)2-s2.0-84911375216 (Scopus ID)978-095523908-3 (ISBN)
Conference
30th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, ARCOM 2014; Portsmouth; United Kingdom
Note

QC 20150608

Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-09-18Bibliographically approved
3. The Impact of Experiential knowledge on the Perceived Business Value of BIM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Experiential knowledge on the Perceived Business Value of BIM
2017 (English)In: Electronic journal of information technology in construction, ISSN 1403-6835, E-ISSN 1400-6529Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is changing and increasingly implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM). But the industry is also characterized by many challenges. BIM has been promoted as a potential solution to the industry´s challenges. The high expectations on BIM are further reflected in an increasing interest for the business value of BIM. However, the understanding and definition of the term remains unclear and there is limited understanding of how BIM may be implemented to create perceptions of business value. This study aims to increase the understanding of how the business value of BIM is perceived among individuals in the international AEC industry and to increase the understanding of how experiential knowledge of BIM impacts the perceived business value of BIM. The results are based on a large international survey designed based on theories of learning through exploration and exploitation and are quantitatively analysed. The findings show that the business value of BIM is mainly perceived in terms of project progress related values associated with managing and minimizing project managerial issues and less in terms of project outcome related values associated with managing efficiency and optimization. The findings also shed new light on how BIM may be implemented to create perceptions of business value by illustrating what previous work practices and experiences with BIM (experiential knowledge of BIM) that underlie the perceptions of the business value of BIM. For example, experiential knowledge of BIM related to having had previous experience in managing various BIM implementation challenges has a large impact on how the business value of perceived.  The findings are compared with the understanding of the business value of IT from the Information Systems (IS) research field in order to discuss theoretical and practical implications and identify future areas of research of the business value of BIM.

Keywords
BIM, business value, experiential knowledge
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-213676 (URN)
Note

QCR 20170906

Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-18Bibliographically approved
4. Challenges when implementing BIM for industry change
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges when implementing BIM for industry change
2017 (English)In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Public clients have been identified as drivers of AEC industry change through their implementation of BIM. Yet, little is known of this implementation process and the associated challenges. This study aims to increase the understanding of what intra and inter organizational challenges that arise when a large Swedish public infrastructure client implements BIM to change the work practices of the actors in the Swedish AEC industry. The IT Business Value Model allows for understanding the public client’s implementation of BIM as an IT-supported change process and for understanding the associated intra and inter organizational challenges. The findings show nine categories of intra and inter organizational challenges related to, for example, demanding BIM in procurement and creating incentives for BIM implementation.  The findings show that intra organizational challenges related to a top-down implementation of BIM, while inter organizational challenges related to a bottom-up implementation. The impact of these challenges on the public client´s ability to drive AEC industry change by implementing BIM is discussed. The findings contribute with the client perspective to studies on BIM implementation and with an increased understanding of the challenges associated with implementing IT-supported change processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Building information modelling, organizational change, challenges, public client
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-213675 (URN)10.1080/01446193.2017.1314519 (DOI)000413957500001 ()2-s2.0-85018837733 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20170906

Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
5. BIM research: Common perspectives and implications for future research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BIM research: Common perspectives and implications for future research
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization: 13-14 June, 2017 at Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, SWEDEN / [ed] Martine Buser, Göran Lindahl and Christine Räisänen, Lyngby, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The expectations on the impact of digitalization, and in particular Building Information Modelling (BIM), are high in both practice and research. Both academia and industry have paid much attention to and invested major resources in BIM during the last decade. However, the research area is not new and has been developing since the 1990s. During this time, most studies have applied rational and technical perspectives to understand BIM implementation and only a have regarded BIM implementation from more reflective and critical perspectives. There are however those who argue that the large interest in BIM research on the rational and technical perspectives, that often proclaim the impact of BIM for increased productivity and efficiency, has created a hype around the concept. This study takes off from this notion and aims to build an argument for broadening the research on BIM. This study examines what knowledge interests and perspectives that are most common in the research on BIM that has been used by and gained influence on the research community. This study examined the knowledge interests of BIM research in terms of knowledge domains (technical, practical and emancipatory) and sociotechnical interest. This study elaborates on effects of limiting research on BIM to technical and normative perspectives. By applying the concept of hegemony, this study contributes to the limited but growing interest in critical perspectives of technology driven change. Implications of a continued technological and normative predomination for future research and practice are also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lyngby: , 2017
Keywords
BIM, hegemony, knowledge domains, social power
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-209462 (URN)000426878400043 ()9788750211259 (ISBN)
Conference
9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 13-14 June, 2017 at Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Note

QC 20170620

Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
6. The Role of the Public Client in the Social Construction of BIM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of the Public Client in the Social Construction of BIM
2017 (English)In: , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Different actors with different work practices, behaviours and culture are currently implementing BIM in temporary projects, networks and alliances. In this change process, public clients are increasingly being promoted as the drivers of change via their ability to demand BIM in procurement. Thus, understanding public client´s BIM implementation from a socio-technical context is important. The Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) allows for such an understanding. SCOT holds the public client, together with contractors, consultants, educators, etc, form relevant social groups that form the social constriction of BIM. Public client fill a particular important role in the social construction of BIM due to their large influence on the other social groups. A large Swedish public infrastructure client recently implemented BIM with the specific aim of driving industry change, innovation and productivity (SOU 2012:39, Trafikanalys 2015). This study aimed to understand the role and impact of the public client in the social construction of BIM in the Swedish AEC industry. For this, the sociological explanation for BIM at the public client needed to be understood. The findings showed that there are currently two conflicting sociological explanations for BIM that are being socially promoted at the public client (one accepting the implementation as a means for driving industry change and one rejecting it). These conflicting sociological explanations had two different implications for the public client´s role and impact in the social construction of BIM.

Keywords
BIM, public client, technology acceptance, social construction of technology
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-213677 (URN)
Conference
9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization (CEO 2017), 12/13 - 14 June 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden
Note

QC 20170906

Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-18Bibliographically approved

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