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Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone-plate efficiency measurements
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2745-6289
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4394-0591
Vise andre og tillknytning
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 026103-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a laboratory-scale arrangement for rapid and accurate measurements of the absolute and local efficiency of soft x-ray micro zone plates in the water window. This in-house instrument is based on a single-line lambda=2.88 nm liquid-jet laser-plasma source. Measurements are performed by a simultaneous comparison of first diffraction-order photon flux with the flux in a calibrated reference signal. This arrangement eliminates existing source emission fluctuations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by the result from measurements of two similar to 55 mu m diameter nickel micro zone plates, showing a groove efficiency of 12.9%+/- 1.1% and 11.7%+/- 1.0%. Furthermore, we show that spatially resolved efficiency mapping is an effective tool for a detailed characterization of local zone plate properties. Thus, this laboratory-scale instrument allows rapid feedback to the fabrication process which is important for future improvements.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2007. Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 026103-
Emneord [en]
Electron diffraction; Laser beams; Photons; Plasma theory; X rays; Emission fluctuations; Micro zone plates; Reference signals; Plates (structural components)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7018DOI: 10.1063/1.2472590ISI: 000244531600057Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33847677594OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7018DiVA, id: diva2:11893
Merknad
QC 20100820Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-04-20 Laget: 2007-04-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Sources, Optics and Instrumentation
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Sources, Optics and Instrumentation
2007 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the development of a sub-60-nm full-period resolution compact soft x-ray microscope operating in the water-window region (2.3-4.4 nm). Soft x-ray water-window microscopy is a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of organic materials exploiting the natural contrast mechanism between carbon and oxygen, cf. Sect. 4.1. The thesis discusses the components of, as well as the integration of the microscope, including liquid-jet laser-plasma x-ray sources, optics, simulations, and image-processing tools.

Liquid-jet-target laser-plasma sources for generation of soft x-rays and extreme-ultraviolet radiation are compact sources with high brightness. The work focused on improved target stability, decreased debris, and accurate source characterization. For x ray microscopy applications a liquid-jet target delivery system allowing cryogenic liquids was developed. Source characterization was performed for two different liquid-jet targets: Methanol and liquid nitrogen. For extreme-ultraviolet lithography applications, the potential use of a liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma source was explored including conversion efficiency and debris measurements.

High quality optics are essential in the development of compact x-ray microscopes. For soft x-ray wavelengths, zone plates and multilayer mirrors are used to focus or redirect radiation. This thesis describes the development and characterization of a condenser zone plate suitable for use in a compact soft x-ray microscope operating at λ = 2.478 nm. It also investigates the possibility to perform differential interference contrast microscopy in the water window using a single diffractive optical element. An arrangement for rapid and accurate determination of absolute and local diffraction efficiency of soft x-ray zone plates using a compact laser-plasma source has been developed. The instrument is used to characterize the zone plates fabricated at the Biomedical & X-Ray Physics division at KTH. Through a collaboration with the Fraunhofer-Institut in Jena, Germany, a large diameter spherical Cr/Sc multilayer mirror, suitable as condenser in the compact x-ray microscope, was developed and characterized. The mirror is designed for λ = 3.374 nm and shows a high, and uniform reflectivity of 3%. This increases the photon flux by an order of magnitude compared to the W/B4C mirrors previously used.

The thesis describes the development of a compact soft x-ray microscope with sub-60-nm full-period resolution. It can operate at two different wavelengths in the water window using the soft x-ray laser-plasma sources combined with the condenser optics described above. Imaging is performed by zone plate objectives. The microscope is capable of imaging hydrated biological samples with thicknesses up to ~10 μm. Improvements made to the mechanical design has turned it into a user friendly instrument allowing daily operation. A numerical method was developed to study the effects of partially coherent illumination on 2D imaging. To stimulate experiments on functional imaging in x-ray microscopy an image-analysis algorithm for identifying colloidal-gold particles was developed. Size selective identification and localization of single gold particles down to a diameter of 50 nm was demonstrated.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. s. x, 59
Serie
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:25
Emneord
soft x-ray microscopy, water window, compact, laser plasma, liquid jet, zone plate optics
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4342 (URN)978-91-7178-613-5 (ISBN)
Disputas
2007-05-04, FD 5, Albanova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad
QC 20100819Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-04-20 Laget: 2007-04-20 Sist oppdatert: 2010-08-20bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography
2011 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Soft x-ray microscopy in the water-window (λ = 2.28 nm – 4.36 nm) is based on zone-plate optics and allows high-resolution imaging of, e.g., cells and soils in their natural or near-natural environment. Three-dimensional imaging is provided via tomographic techniques, soft x-ray cryo tomography. However, soft x-ray microscopes with such capabilities have been based on large-scale synchrotron x‑ray facilities, thereby limiting their accessibility for a wider scientific community.

This Thesis describes the development of the Stockholm laboratory soft x-ray microscope to three-dimensional cryo tomography and to new optics-based contrast mechanisms. The microscope relies on a methanol or nitrogen liquid-jet laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer or zone-plate condenser optics, in-house fabricated zone-plate objectives, and allows operation at two wavelengths in the water-window, λ = 2.48 nm and λ = 2.48 nm. With the implementation of a new state-of-the-art normal-incidence multilayer condenser for operation at λ = 2.48 nm and a tiltable cryogenic sample stage the microscope now allows imaging of dry, wet or cryo-fixed samples. This arrangement was used for the first demonstration of laboratory soft x-ray cryo microscopy and tomography. The performance of the microscope has been demonstrated in a number of experiments described in this Thesis, including, tomographic imaging with a resolution of 140 nm, cryo microscopy and tomography of various cells and parasites, and for studies of aqueous soils and clays. The Thesis also describes the development and implementation of single-element differential-interference and Zernike phase-contrast zone-plate objectives. The enhanced contrast provided by these optics reduce exposure times or lowers the dose in samples and are of major importance for harder x-ray microscopy. The implementation of a high-resolution 50 nm compound zone-plate objective for sub-25-nm resolution imaging is also described. All experiments are supported by extensive numerical modelling for improved understanding of partially coherent image formation and stray light in soft x-ray microscopes. The models are useful tools for studying effects of zone plate optics or optical design of the microscope on image formation and quantitative accuracy in soft x-ray tomography.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. s. x, 76
Serie
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2011:03
Emneord
Microscopy, X-ray optics, Diffractive optics, Zone plates, X-ray microscopy, Soft X-ray physics, Tomography
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29950 (URN)978-91-7415-874-8 (ISBN)
Disputas
2011-02-25, FB42, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad
QC 20110221Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-02-21 Laget: 2011-02-18 Sist oppdatert: 2011-02-21bibliografisk kontrollert

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