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Throughput and Latency of Millimeter-Wave Networks: Performance Analyses and Design Principles
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0134-2996
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, the ever-increasing demands on higher data rates and better serviceperformance have posed extremely huge challenges to the existing wireless communicationswithin sub-6 GHz bands, mainly due to the spectrum scarcity in lowerfrequency bands. In recent years, the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) technology, as apromising candidate to meet the aforementioned demands, have attracted extensiveresearch attention, and has been regarded as one of the key enablers for theforthcoming the 5th generation (5G) mobile communications. The main featuresof mm-wave communications include: abundant spectral resources, high penetrationloss, severe path loss, weak multi-path effects, and narrow antenna beams, andthese particular features make the potential challenges and solutions with mm-wavediffer a lot from those in the conventional 6-GHz systems.

It is known that the high throughput and the low latency are two critical qualityof-service (QoS) aspects in future mobile networks, while the related research withmm-wave are fairly recent and insufficient in the past few years. Motived by theurgent needs for further development and the blanks remained in previous works,in this doctoral thesis, we investigate the throughput and the latency in mm-wavenetworks through conducting performance analyses and identifying design principles,with the objective of seeking clues for improving the QoS of mm-wave wirelesscommunications in practice.

Our main research regarding throughput and latency in mm-wave networksthat are included in this doctoral thesis can be categorized from the following threeaspects:

(i) Throughput of mm-wave relay networks: For indoor scenarios, we study thehalf-duplex (HD) relaying with mm-wave in the presence of random linkblockages, where a distance-based routing algorithm is proposed to maximizethe throughput. For outdoor scenarios, focusing on a two-hop amplifyand-forward (AF) relay network in the HD or the full-duplex (FD) mode, weinvestigate the impacts of beamwidth, ground reflections, and self-interferencecoefficient on the throughput, where Gaussian-type directional antenna modeland two-ray channel model are jointly adopted.

(ii) Latency analysis via stochastic network calculus: With the aid of stochasticnetwork calculus, we derive upper bounds for the probabilistic delay tokeep track of the latency performance of buffer-aided mm-wave networks. We mainly study mm-wave systems designed in tandem or parallel manners,and also consider a hybrid design that combines the tandem and parallelschemes in a flexible manner. Moreover, the capability of achieving low-latencymm-wave communications is characterized and investigated in terms of effectivecapacity, and the comparison among different transmission schemes isconducted to identify the respective strengths and proper conditions for theirapplications.

(iii) Traffic allocation for low-latency mm-wave systems: Traffic allocation schemesfor low latency in buffer-aided mm-wave networks are investigated. Due tothe use of buffers, the delay optimization problem hereby differs from thosewithout buffers, where the conventional graph-based network optimizationtechniques become intractable. We demonstrate the impacts of different trafficallocation schemes on the latency. For multi-hop networks with multipleparallel channels in each hop, we consider both local and global traffic allocationschemes, quantify their resulting end-to-end (E2E) latencies, and analyzethe respective strengths and weaknesses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 250
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:28
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Telecommunication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225654ISBN: 978-91-7729-731-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-225654DiVA, id: diva2:1195862
Public defence
2018-05-03, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180410

Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Maximum Throughput Path Selection with Random Blockage for Indoor 60 GHz Relay Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximum Throughput Path Selection with Random Blockage for Indoor 60 GHz Relay Networks
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 63, no 10, p. 3511-3524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indoor communications in the 60 GHz band is capable to support multi-gigabit wireless access thanks to the abundant spectrum and the possibility of using dense antenna arrays. However, the high directivity and penetration loss make it vulnerable to blockage events which can be frequent in indoor environments. Given network topology information in sufficient precision, we investigate the average throughput and outage probability when the connection between any two nodes can be established either via the line-of-sight (LOS) link, through a reflection link, or by a half-duplex relay node. We model the reflection link as an LOS with extra power loss and derive the closed-form expression for the relative reflection loss. For networks with a central coordinator and multiple relays, we also propose a generic algorithm, maximum throughput path selection (MTPS), to select the optimal path that maximizes the throughput. The complexity of the MTPS algorithm is O(n2) for networks equipped with n relays, whereas a brute-forced algorithm has complexity of O(n · n!). Numerical results show that increasing the number of relays can significantly increase the average throughput and decrease the outage probability, and resorting to reflection paths provides significant gains when the probability of link blockage is high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015
Keywords
60 GHz, Relay, Blockage, Throughput, Outage, Reflection
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159104 (URN)10.1109/TCOMM.2015.2463284 (DOI)000363257200006 ()2-s2.0-84958019491 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 637-2013-473
Note

QC 20151117. Updated from Manuscript to Article in journal.

Available from: 2015-01-21 Created: 2015-01-21 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
2. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Relaying: Impacts of Beamwidth and Self-Interference
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Relaying: Impacts of Beamwidth and Self-Interference
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 589-600Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study the maximum achievable rate of a two-hop amplified-and-forward (AF) relaying millimeter-wave (mm-wave) system, where two AF relaying schemes, i.e., half-duplex (HD) and full-duplex (FD) are discussed. By considering the two-ray mm-wave channel and the Gaussian-type directional antenna, jointly, the impacts of the beamwidth and the self-interference coefficient on maximum achievable rates are investigated. Results show that, under a sum-power constraint, the rate of FD-AF mm-wave relaying outperforms its HD counterpart only when antennas with narrower beamwidth and smaller self-interference coefficient are applied. However, when the sum-power budget is sufficiently high or the beamwidth of directional antenna is sufficiently small, direct transmission becomes the best strategy, rather than the AF relaying schemes. For both relaying schemes, we show that the rates of both AF relaying schemes scale as O(min{theta(-1)(m),theta(-2)(m)})with respect to beamwidth theta(m), and the rate of FD-AF relaying scales as O(mu(-(1/2))) with respect to self-interference coefficient mu. Also, we show that ground reflections may significantly affect the performance of mm-wave communications, constructively or destructively. Thus, the impact of ground reflections deserves careful considerations for analyzing or designing future mm-wave wireless networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Millimeter-wave communications, amplify-and-forward relaying, Gaussian-type directional antenna, two-ray channel, beamwidth, self-interference
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224036 (URN)10.1109/TCOMM.2017.2767041 (DOI)000425642400010 ()2-s2.0-85042281114 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Wireless@KTH Seed Project “Millimeter Wave for Ultra-Reliable LowLatency Communications”
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20180320

Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-Hop Networks With Full-Duplex Buffered Relays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-Hop Networks With Full-Duplex Buffered Relays
Show others...
2018 (English)In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 576-590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The abundance of spectrum in the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) bands makes it an attractive alternative for future wireless communication systems. Such systems are expected to provide data transmission rates in the order of multi-gigabits per second in order to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for high rate data communication. Unfortunately, mm-wave radio is subject to severe path loss, which limits its usability for long-range outdoor communication. In this paper, we propose a multi-hop mm-wave wireless network for outdoor communication, where multiple full-duplex buffered relays are used to extend the communication range, while providing end-to-end performance guarantees to the traffic traversing the network. We provide a cumulative service process characterization for the mm-wave propagation channel with self-interference in terms of the moment generating function of its channel capacity. Then, we then use this characterization to compute probabilistic upper bounds on the overall network performance, i.e., total backlog and end-to-end delay. Furthermore, we study the effect of self-interference on the network performance and propose an optimal power allocation scheme to mitigate its impact in order to enhance network performance. Finally, we investigate the relation between relay density and network performance under a sum power constraint. We show that increasing relay density may have adverse effects on network performance, unless the selfinterference can be kept sufficiently small.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018
Keywords
Millimeter-wave, multi-hop, moment generating functions, delay, backlog
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224045 (URN)10.1109/TNET.2017.2786341 (DOI)000425324000042 ()2-s2.0-85041182670 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180320

Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
4. Low-Latency Millimeter-Wave Communications: Traffic Dispersion or Network Densification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Latency Millimeter-Wave Communications: Traffic Dispersion or Network Densification
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 3526-3539Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Low latency is critical for many applications in wireless communications, e.g., vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), multimedia, and industrial control networks. Meanwhile, for the capability of providing multi-gigabits per second (Gbps) rates, millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communication has attracted substantial research interest recently. This paper investigates two strategies to reduce the communication delay in future wireless networks: traffic dispersion and network densification. A hybrid scheme that combines these two strategies is also considered. The probabilistic delay and effective capacity are used to evaluate performance. For probabilistic delay, the violation probability of delay, i.e., the probability that the delay exceeds a given tolerance level, is characterized in terms of upper bounds, which are derived by applying stochastic network calculus theory. In addition, to characterize the maximum affordable arrival traffic for mmwave systems, the effective capacity, i.e., the service capability with a given quality-of-service (QoS) requirement, is studied. The derived bounds on the probabilistic delay and effective capacity are validated through simulations. These numerical results show that, for a given sum power budget, traffic dispersion, network densification, and the hybrid scheme exhibit different potentials to reduce the end-to-end communication delay. For instance, traffic dispersion outperforms network densification when high sum power budget and arrival rate are given, while it could be the worst option, otherwise. Furthermore, it is revealed that, increasing the number of independent paths and/or relay density is always beneficial, while the performance gain is related to the arrival rate and sum power, jointly. Therefore, a proper transmission scheme should be selected to optimize the delay performance, according to the given conditions on arrival traffic and system service capability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225845 (URN)10.1109/TCOMM.2018.2817199 (DOI)000442309400023 ()2-s2.0-85044019202 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180410

Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
5. Low-Latency Heterogeneous Networks with Millimeter-Wave Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Latency Heterogeneous Networks with Millimeter-Wave Communications
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225847 (URN)
Projects
Wireless@KTH Seed Project “Millimeter Wave for Ultra-Reliable LowLatency Communications”
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20180410

Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
6. Traffic Allocation for Low- Latency Multi-Hop Networks with Buffers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic Allocation for Low- Latency Multi-Hop Networks with Buffers
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225848 (URN)
Projects
Wireless@KTH Seed Project “Millimeter Wave for Ultra-Reliable LowLatency Communications”
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20180410

Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
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