Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Sustainability Assessment for Small Scale Biogas in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
2017 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The study evaluates sustainability aspects of small scale biogas production in Yogyakarta Province of Indonesia. Growing number of livestock (i.e. cows, sheep, chicken, pigs, and other domestic animals) in the region brings opportunity to produce biogas from livestock manure, leading to improve energy security especially in household, while contributing to renewable energy target which is 31% from Total Primary Energy Demand (TPES) in all sectors by 2050. Biogas potential from cattle, horse, buffalo, pig, sheep, goat, chicken and duck which own by household in all regencies within the province of Yogyakarta (i.e. Bantul, Gunung Kidul, Kulon Progo, Sleman, and City of Yogyakarta) are calculated. Biogas digesters types and options for biogas utilization are evaluated by set of indicators in terms of technical, economic and environmental dimensions. Performance of the four types of digesters (i.e. fixed dome, floating drum, polyethylene tubular and concrete tubular digester) are examined based on the dimensions. For digester assessment, the dimensions are divided into several indicators, such as the lifetime, process efficiency, capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, feed-to-water ratio. The assessment would ensure that installation of biogas have optimum technical performance, attractive investment for the owner, and does not exploit too much natural resources. Equal weighted sum method is used to compare the digesters performance. The second assessment is to evaluate options for off-grid electricity use and cooking based on several indicators which are levelized cost of energy (LCOE), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR), Payback period and emissions saving. The production of biofertilizer, which is not part of the current system, is taken into account for additional income for biodigester’s user. The study estimates 1,211.35 TJ/year of biogas energy can be produced from livestock manure or equals to 44.72% of the total energy consumption in the household sector in Yogyakarta province in 2013. Gunung Kidul Regency has the most potential biogas from livestock, followed by Kulon Progo, Sleman, Bantul, then City of Yogyakarta. Utilization of biogas for household cooking could reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the province up to 1,260.66 MtCO2e per year while biogas for electricity reduce 1,562.144 3

 

MtCO2e annually. The fixed dome digester obtains the highest score in the most of indicators assessed. For biogas utilization, biogas for cooking shows better performance in economic and environmental aspects. Biogas for cooking requires lower capital cost (US$ 850 less) and get higher NPV (US$ 2,000 more) than biogas for electricity. Yet, biogas for electricity save 301.48 MtCO2e more GHG emission than biogas for cooking. From digester and biogas utilization assessments, household biogas in Yogyakarta has been used the sustainable option for digester, which is fixed dome digester, and biogas utilization, which is biogas for cooking. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is done to know parameters that affect NPV for biogas for cooking and biogas for electricity. Biogas yields, fertilizer price, and LPG price are shown as the top three parameters that affect NPV for biogas for cooking utilization. While for biogas for electricity, the affecting parameter are electricity price, biogas yields, fertilizer price, and generator efficiency. From the sensitivity analysis, several recommendations were developed to maximize the current project. The recommendations are improvement of biogas stove efficiency, recommendation for biogas installation system, creating market demand for biogas by diminishing LPG subsidy, suggestion for progress monitoring and institutional recommendation for the program. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource done several monitoring to check whether the digester is still operating. However, there is no follow-up action for digester that is not operating anymore. On the other hand, Yayasan Rumah Energi (YRE), the main provider of biogas installation and service in Yogyakarta Province, conduct annual user survey. This survey focuses on satisfaction level of digester’s user after installation. Investigation regarding the impact of biogas project, such as energy shift from LPG to biogas and digestate utilization, is missing. Besides biogas for cooking, there are opportunity to develop biogas for electricity since several regencies in Yogyakarta does not have 100% electrification ratio, such as Gunung Kidul (82%) and City of Yogyakarta (69%). Due to available biogas potential, development of biogas for electricity in Gunung Kidul is more promising than in City of Yogyakarta. Additionally, research of biogas in Indonesia should be integrated with industries and private sector. For instance, by mass production of low cost generator which had been developed by Indonesian Institute for Sciences (LIPI) and by developing mini grid installation for biogas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 85
Keywords [en]
household biogas, multi criteria analysis, emission savings, environment benefit, biofertilizer
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226148OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-226148DiVA, id: diva2:1197532
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2974 kB)265 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2974 kBChecksum SHA-512
be039a96c5adf82179ab110a1cad2d4170b87fc890e6212eef54fa9c008a34d07a7e7386e2eedf034105027b188f22392a05887ed1ac146fb2e0dbcf362f399f
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Energy and Climate Studies, ECS
Energy Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 265 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 577 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf