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Solar receiver development for gas-turbine based solar dish systems
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. (Concentrating Solar Power)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3789-8654
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Small-scale concentrating solar power plants such as micro gas-turbine based solar dish systems have the potential to harness solar energy in an effective way and supply electricity to customers in remote areas. In such systems, the solar receiver transfers the power of concentrated solar radiation to the working fluid of the power conversion cycle. It is one of the key components as it needs to operate at high temperatures to ensure a high power cycle efficiency and under high flux densities to ensure a high receiver efficiency. In order to address these challenges and to ensure efficient and reliable operation innovative designs are needed.

This research work focuses on the complete development of a novel solar receiver applying a new systematic design and analysis methodology. Therefore, a comprehensive receiver design and experimental evaluation process were developed and implemented. The design process includes the identification of technical specifications and requirements, the development of receiver design tools of different investigation levels coupled with multi-objective optimization tools, the evaluation of scaling effects between tests in the KTH high-flux solar simulator and the full-scale solar dish system. As a result of the design process a representative final receiver was established with material temperatures and stresses below critical limits while respecting the design specification.

The experimental evaluation includes the enhancement of the KTH high-flux solar simulator to provide stable and reliable operating conditions, the precise characterization of the radiative boundary conditions, the design of a receiver test bed recreating the operating behavior of a gas-turbine, and the final receiver testing for multiple operating points. It was shown that the prototype reaches an efficiency of 69.3% for an air outlet temperature of 800°C and a mass flow of 29.5 g/s. For a larger mass flow of 38.4 g/s a receiver efficiency of 84.8% was achieved with an air outlet temperature of 749°C.

The measurement results obtained were then used for a multi-point validation of the receiver design tools, resulting in a high level of confidence in the accuracy of the tools. The validated models were then harnessed to calculate the performance of a full-scale solar receiver integrated into the OMSoP solar dish system. It was shown that a solar receiver can be designed, which delivers air at 800°C with a receiver efficiency of 82.2%.

Finally, the economic potential of micro gas-turbine based solar systems was investigated and it was shown that they are ideally suited for small-scale stand-alone and off-grid applications.

The results of the receiver development highlight the feasibility of using volumetric solar receivers to provide heat input to micro gas-turbine based solar dish systems and no major hurdles were found.

Abstract [sv]

Småskalig koncentrerad solkraft som mikrogasturbinbaserade solkraftverk med paraboliska solfångare visar potential att utnyttja solens energi på ett effektivt sätt och levererar el till kunder i avlägsna områden. I dessa solkraftverk är det solmottagaren som överför energin av koncentrerat solljus till kraftomvandlingssystemets arbetsmedium. Mottagaren är en av de viktigaste komponenterna eftersom den drivs vid höga temperaturer för att nå en hög systemverkningsgrad och är utsatt för höga ljusintensiteter för att nå en hög komponentverkningsgrad. För att hantera dessa utmaningar och garantera en effektiv och pålitlig drift behövs nya och innovativa lösningar.

Syftet med detta arbete är att utveckla en solmottagare genom att använda en systematisk design- och analysmetodik. Därför utvecklades en omfattande design- och analysprocess som inkluderar identifiering av tekniska specifikationer, utveckling av designverktyg för olika detaljnivåer i samband med optimeringsmetoder, utvärdering av skalningseffekter mellan laboratorietester och fullskaliga tester. Som resultatet av designprocessen konstruerades en solmottagare för den experimentella utvärderingen där alla materialtemperaturer och materialspänningar är inom tillåtna nivåer.

Den experimentella utvärderingen inkluderar förbättringarna av KTH:s solsimulator för att säkerställa stabil och pålitlig drift, karakterisering av instrålningen, utveckling av en solmottagartestbädd, och solmottagarexperiment för olika driftspunkter. Resultaten visar att solmottagaren uppnår en verkningsgrad på 69.3% för en luftutloppstemperatur på 800°C och ett massflöde på 29.5 g/s. Verkningsgraden ökar till 84.8% för ett massflöde på 40 g/s med en luftutloppstemperatur på 749°C.

De experimentella resultaten användes för att validera de utvecklade solmottagardesignverktygen genom en flerpunktsvalideringsprocess vilket resulterar i ett högt förtroende av designverktygens noggrannhet. De validerade designverktygen användes för att beräkna prestandan av en fullskalig solmottagare för integreringen i OMSoP solkraftverket. Resultaten visar att konceptet uppnår en luftutloppstemperatur på 800°C med en verkningsgrad på 82.5%.

Till sist undersöktes den ekonomiska potentialen av mikrogasturbinbaserade solkraftverk. De teknoekonomiska analyserna visar att kraftverken är ideal för småskaliga off-grid applikationer.

Resultaten av solmottagarutvecklingen framhäver möjligheten att använda volumetriska solmottagare för att leverera värme till mikrogasturbinbaserade solkraftverk med paraboliska solfångare och inga stora problem upptäcktes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 131
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2018:4
Keywords [en]
Concentrating solar power, volumetric solar receiver, development, experimental evaluation, validation
Keywords [sv]
Koncentrerad solkraft, volumetrisk solmottagare, utveckling, experimentell utvärdering, validering
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226343ISBN: 978-91-7729-746-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-226343DiVA, id: diva2:1198546
Public defence
2018-05-15, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180418

Available from: 2018-04-18 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Micro Gas-Turbine Design for Small-Scale Hybrid Solar Power Plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro Gas-Turbine Design for Small-Scale Hybrid Solar Power Plants
2013 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 135, no 11, p. 113001-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hybrid solar micro gas-turbines are a promising technology for supplying controllable low-carbon electricity in off-grid regions. A thermoeconomic model of three different hybrid micro gas-turbine power plant layouts has been developed, allowing their environmental and economic performance to be analyzed. In terms of receiver design, it was shown that the pressure drop is a key criterion. However, for recuperated layouts, the combined pressure drop of the recuperator and receiver is more important. In terms of both electricity costs and carbon emissions, the internally-fired recuperated micro gas-turbine was shown to be the most promising solution of the three configurations evaluated. Compared to competing diesel generators, the electricity costs from hybrid solar units are between 10% and 43% lower, while specific CO2 emissions are reduced by 20–35%.

Keywords
solar thermal power, micro gas-turbine, hybrid, layouts
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134221 (URN)10.1115/1.4025077 (DOI)000326160900018 ()2-s2.0-84887046933 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131203

Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
2. Preliminary design and analysis of a novel solar receiver for a micro gas-turbine based solar dish system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preliminary design and analysis of a novel solar receiver for a micro gas-turbine based solar dish system
2015 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 378-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The solar receiver is one of the key components of hybrid solar micro gas-turbine systems, which would seem to present a number of advantages when compared with Stirling engine based systems and photovoltaic panels. In this study a solar receiver meeting the specific requirements for integration into a small-scale (10 kWel) dish-mounted hybrid solar micro gas-turbine system has been designed with a special focus on the trade-offs between efficiency, pressure drop, material utilization and economic design. A situation analysis, performed using a multi-objective optimizer, has shown that a pressurized configuration, where the solar receiver is placed before the turbine, is superior to an atmospheric configuration with the solar receiver placed after the turbine. Based on these initial design results, coupled CFD/FEM simulations have been performed, allowing detailed analysis of the designs under the expected operating conditions. The results show that the use of volumetric solar receivers to provide heat input to micro gas-turbine based solar dish systems appears to be a promising solution; with material temperatures and material stresses well below permissible limits.

Keywords
Solar receiver, Micro gas-turbine, Mutli-objective optimization, Coupled CFD/FEM analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161705 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2015.01.013 (DOI)000353080700033 ()2-s2.0-84924066245 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150324

Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
3. Scaling effects of a novel solar receiver for a micro gas-turbine based solar dish system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaling effects of a novel solar receiver for a micro gas-turbine based solar dish system
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Solar Energy, ISSN 0142-5919, E-ISSN 1477-2752, Vol. 162, p. 248-264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory-scale component testing in dedicated high-flux solar simulators is a crucial step in the developmentand scale-up of concentrating solar power plants. Due to different radiative boundary conditions available inhigh-flux solar simulators and full-scale power plants the temperature and stress profiles inside the investigatedreceivers differ between these two testing platforms. The main objective of this work is to present a systematicscaling methodology for solar receivers to guarantee that experiments performed in the controlled environmentof high-flux solar simulators yield representative results when compared to full-scale tests. In this work theeffects of scaling a solar air receiver from the integration into the OMSoP full-scale micro gas-turbine based solardish system to the KTH high-flux solar simulator are investigated. Therefore, Monte Carlo ray-tracing routines ofthe solar dish concentrator and the solar simulator are developed and validated against experimental characterizationresults. The thermo-mechanical analysis of the solar receiver is based around a coupled CFD/FEManalysislinked with stochastic heat source calculations in combination with ray-tracing routines. A geneticmulti-objective optimization is performed to identify suitable receiver configurations for testing in the solarsimulator which yield representative results compared to full-scale tests. The scaling quality is evaluated using aset of performance and scaling indicators. Based on the results a suitable receiver configuration is selected forfurther investigation and experimental evaluation in the KTH high-flux solar simulator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Pressurized volumetric solar air receiver; Experimental evaluation; High-flux solar simulator
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223611 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2018.01.020 (DOI)000427218600025 ()2-s2.0-85041424666 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180226

Available from: 2018-02-25 Created: 2018-02-25 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
4. Development of a Fresnel lens based high-flux solar simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Fresnel lens based high-flux solar simulator
2017 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 144, p. 436-444Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a Fresnel lens based high flux solar simulator (HFSS) is developed for concentrating solar power research and high temperature material testing. In this design, each commercially available 7 kW(e) xenon-arc lamp is coupled with a silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses as the optical concentrator, and 12 lamp-lens units are distributed in a circular array. In total, the power of the solar simulator can reach 84 kWe. A ray tracing model has been developed based on the real arc-emitter shape and the Fresnel lens optics for predicting the optical performance of the HFSS design. The testing result shows that the ray tracing model can predict the flux distribution on the focal plane accurately but a bit conservative in the center region. The flux distribution on the focal plane appears axisymmetric with a peak flux of 7.22 MW/m(2), and 19.7 kW of radiative power in total is delivered on a 280 mm diameter target. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keywords
High flux solar simulator, Fresnel lens, Concentrating solar energy, Xenon lamp
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205490 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.050 (DOI)000397550500044 ()2-s2.0-85011317412 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170524

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
5. Characterization of the KTH high-flux solar simulator combining three measurement methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the KTH high-flux solar simulator combining three measurement methods
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, p. 2091-2099Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the characterization of the first Fresnel lens-based High-Flux Solar Simulator (HFSS) showing the evaluation of the total thermal radiative power dependent on the aperture radius at the focal plane. This result can be directly applied to calculate the thermal power input into any solar receiver tested in the KTH HFSS. Three measurement setups were implemented and their results combined to assess and verify the characterization of the solar simulator: a thermopile sensor measuring radiative flux, a CMOS camera coupled with a Lambertian target to obtain flux maps, and a calorimeter to measure the total thermal power within an area of 300×300 mm. Finally, a Monte Carlo analysis was performed to calculate the total uncertainties associated to each setup and to combine them to obtain the simulator characterization. The final result shows a peak flux of 6.8 ± 0.35 MW/m2 with a thermal power of 14.7 ± 0.75 kW within an aperture of 180 mm in diameter at the focal plane, and a thermal-electrical conversion efficiency of 25.8 ± 0.3%. It was found very good repeatability and a stable energy output from the lamps during the experiments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Solar simulator, Characterization, Uncertainty analysis, Monte Carlo
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219891 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.11.067 (DOI)000423249200061 ()2-s2.0-85036450427 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171215

Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
6. Experimental evaluation of a novel solar receiver for a micro gas-turbine based solar dish system in the KTH high-flux solar simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of a novel solar receiver for a micro gas-turbine based solar dish system in the KTH high-flux solar simulator
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 159, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents the experimental evaluation of a novel pressurized high-temperature solar air receiver for the integration into a micro gas-turbine solar dish system reaching an air outlet temperature of 800°C. The experiments are conducted in the controlled environment of the KTH high-flux solar simulator with well-defined radiative boundary conditions. Special focus is placed on providing detailed information to enable the validation of numerical models. The solar receiver performance is evaluated for a range of operating points and monitored using multiple point measurements. The porous absorber front surface temperature is measured continuously as it is one of the most critical components for the receiver performance and model validation. Additionally, pyrometer line measurements of the absorber and glass window are taken for each operating point. The experiments highlight the feasibility of volumetric solar receivers for micro gas-turbine based solar dish systems and no major hurdles were found. A receiver efficiency of 84.8% was reached for an air outlet temperature of 749°C. When using a lower mass flow, an air outlet temperature of 800°C is achieved with a receiver efficiency of 69.3%. At the same time, all material temperatures remain below permissible limits and no deterioration of the porous absorber is found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Pressurized volumetric solar air receiver, Experimental evaluation, High-flux solar simulator
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226335 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.06.120 (DOI)000442973300017 ()2-s2.0-85049906151 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180420

Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-09-19Bibliographically approved
7. Small Scale Hybrid Solar Power Plants for Polygeneration in Rural Areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small Scale Hybrid Solar Power Plants for Polygeneration in Rural Areas
2014 (English)In: Energy Procedia 57, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 57, p. 1536-1545Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Small scale micro gas-turbine based hybrid solar power plants are a promising technology for supplying multiple energy services in a controllable and sustainable manner using polygeneration technologies. Compared to a conventional diesel generator based system where electricity is used as the main energy carrier, these systems show great potential to reduce costs and carbon dioxide emissions. Depending on the design, carbon dioxide emissions are reduced by around 9% and equivalent annual costs are reduced by 21% - 26%, as compared to a base polygeneration configuration where cooling services are provided centrally by an absorption chiller without integrating a solar micro gas-turbine. Compared to the system where electricity is used as the main energy carrier a reduction of equivalent annual costs of up to 20% and a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of up to 33.5% was achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 57
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-126928 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.113 (DOI)000348253201075 ()2-s2.0-84922326044 (Scopus ID)
Conference
ISES Solar World Congress 2013. Cancun, Mexico. November 3-7, 2013
Note

QC 20150325

Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
8. Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Dish Micro Gas-Turbine Combined-Cycle Power Plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Dish Micro Gas-Turbine Combined-Cycle Power Plant
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia 69, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 69, p. 1089-1099Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel solar power plant concept is presented, based on the use of a coupled network of hybrid solar-dish micro gas-turbines, driving a centralized heat recovery steam generator and steam-cycle, thereby seeking to combine the high efficiency of the solar dish collector with a combined-cycle power block. A 150 MWe solar power plant was designed based on this concept and compared with both a conventional combined-cycle power plant and a hybrid solar-tower combined-cycle. The solar dish combined-cycle power plant could reach higher levels of solar integration than other concepts but was shown to be more expensive with current technology; solar electricity costs are double those of the hybrid solar-tower combined cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157823 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.03.217 (DOI)000358735000116 ()2-s2.0-84943608048 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International SolarPACES Conference 2014. Beijing, China. September 16-19, 2014.
Note

QC 20150622

Available from: 2014-12-16 Created: 2014-12-16 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved

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