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Polygeneration District Heating and Cooling Systems Based on Renewable Resources
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. IDMEC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traditional district heating (DH) and district heating and cooling (DHC) systems have to address two principal challenges: phase-out of fossil fuels in favor of renewables; and profit instability related to declines in heating and cooling demands along with electricity price fluctuations. These obstacles can be overcome at once through upgrading these systems to a polygeneration concept by means of a retrofitted air-steam gasifier and gas upgrading equipment, enabling the use of renewable feedstocks such as refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste (MSW). In particular, the polygeneration DHC system will be able to produce simultaneously heating, cooling, electricity and value-added products – char, syngas, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen. This work investigates the retrofit of these DHC systems through a case study based on the existing Climaespaco facility, located in Lisboa, Portugal. Thermodynamic, exergy, economic, exergo-economic and environmental models were built in Engineering Equation Software (EES) and Matlab. Overall, both RDF and MSW were found to be technically feasible and economically viable for using as feedstocks in the polygeneration DHC system. SNG production integrated in the polygeneration DHC system through the air-steam gasification and gas upgrading equipment is judged to be practical and also boosts revenues. The highest energy efficiency is achieved for cases where char is the sole by-product. System efficiencies drop as other value-added products are included as system outputs, although the extent of the efficiency decline can be adjusted by regulating syngas and SNG production. The highest discounted net cash flows are found for the scenario where SNG, syngas and char are produced simultaneously. A payback period of 3 years was determined for this and the other cases. From the exergy and exergo-economic perspectives, the scenario of simultaneous char and syngas production is the most promising as the overall exergy efficiency has the highest value and product exergo-economic costs are the lowest. However, from the products diversity viewpoint, the simultaneous production of char, SNG, syngas and H2 is advantageous.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2018. , p. 128
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2018:15
Keywords [en]
district heating and cooling systems, polygeneration, refuse derived fuel, municipal solid waste, gasification.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226929ISBN: 978-91-7729-785-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-226929DiVA, id: diva2:1202593
Public defence
2018-05-21, Meeting Room (0.19), Informatics II Building, Instituto Superior Tecnico,Av. Rovisco Pais,1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal, 17:28 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-04-27 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Development of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of RDF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of RDF
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling,September 7th to September 9th, 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2014
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226923 (URN)
Conference
The 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, September 7th to September 9th, 2014, Stockholm, Sweden
Note

QC 20180504

Available from: 2018-04-27 Created: 2018-04-27 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. Production of Synthetic Natural Gas from Refuse-Derived Fuel Gasification for Use in a Polygeneration District Heating and Cooling System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Synthetic Natural Gas from Refuse-Derived Fuel Gasification for Use in a Polygeneration District Heating and Cooling System
2016 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1080Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nowadays conventional district heating and cooling (DHC) systems face the challenge of reducing fossil fuel dependency while maintaining profitability. To address these issues, this study examines the possibility of retrofitting DHC systems with refuse-derived fuel (RDF) gasifiers and gas upgrading equipment. A novel system is proposed based on the modification of an existing DHC system. Thermodynamic and economic models were established to allow for a parametric analysis of key parameters. The study revealed that such an upgrade is both feasible and economically viable. In the basic scenario, the retrofitted DHC system can simultaneously produce 60.3 GWh/year of heat, 65.1 GWh/year of cold, 33.2 GWh/year of electricity and 789.5 tons/year of synthetic natural gas. A significant part of the heat load can be generated from the waste heat of the upgrading equipment. The investment in retrofitting the polygeneration DHC system presents a payback period of 3 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
polygeneration, synthetic natural gas, district heating and cooling systems, refuse derived fuels, gasification
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202451 (URN)10.3390/en9121080 (DOI)000392402700081 ()2-s2.0-85020529091 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170303

Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2018-04-27Bibliographically approved
3. Energy and economic assessment of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and economic assessment of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 137, p. 696-705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventional district heating and cooling (DHC) systems are compelled to reduce their fossil fuel dependency while ensuring profitability as cooling and heating demands decline. One solution is to retrofit the system with a gasifier and product gas upgrading equipment so that the system will be able to diversify its fuel input, including biomass and waste resources, while simultaneously producing synthetic natural gas (SNG), synthetic gas (syngas) and char complementarily to heat, cold and electricity. The main objective of this study is to assess energetically and economically a polygeneration DHC system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels considering the following sub-product scenarios: char; char and syngas; char and SNG; and char, syngas and SNG. The results show that when char is the only sub product of the modified DHC system, the investment payback is 3 years, the discounted net cash flow (DNCF) is 142 mln USD, and the system trigeneration efficiency is 83.6%. When other sub-products are supplied by the system, its performance reduces but the system DNCF increases, while the investment payback remains constant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Gasification, Polygeneration, District heating and cooling system, Energy and economic assessment
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219347 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.06.110 (DOI)000414879400062 ()2-s2.0-85021386850 (Scopus ID)
Conference
29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), JUN 19-23, 2016, Portoroz, SLOVENIA
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-04-27Bibliographically approved
4. Exergy analysis of a polygeneration-enabled district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exergy analysis of a polygeneration-enabled district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuel
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 141, p. 760-773Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating and cooling (DHC) systems, modified or retrofitted with integration of gasifiers and gas upgrading equipment, represent promising alternatives to traditional approaches since various scenarios of products complementary to heat, cold, and electricity can be realized, namely: char only; char and syngas; char, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen (H-2); and char, syngas, SNG and H-2. This manuscript evaluates a polygeneration-enabled DHC system in detail (operation during a typical year) from exergetic and exergoeconomic perspectives. The base DHC system utilizes natural gas as fuel with a nominal capacity of 29 MW heat, 35 MW of cold, and 5 MW of electricity. The retrofit employs refuse derived fuel (RDF) as feedstock to an atmospheric gasifier with downstream gas clean-up, a gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator along with heat exchangers for integration with the base DHC system. The exergy analysis revealed that the polygeneration system presents adequate performance at all scenarios established. Among the sets of value-added products the combination of char and syngas is the most beneficial as the system efficiency reaches a value of similar to 72%. The outcomes of the exergoeconomic analysis support the exergy results. The lower production costs for value-added products are achieved for the maximum simultaneous char and syngas production, with each of these costs estimated to be 6.1 USD/GJ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Exergy, Gasification, Synthetic natural gas, Polygeneration, District heating and cooling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199463 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.151 (DOI)000389090300069 ()2-s2.0-84994494343 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-04-27Bibliographically approved
5. Impact of a reduction in heating, cooling and electricity loads on the performance of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on waste gasification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of a reduction in heating, cooling and electricity loads on the performance of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on waste gasification
2018 (English)In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 151, p. 594-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
polygeneration, district heating and cooling, refuse derived fuel, municipal solid waste, gasification
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226907 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.078 (DOI)000432509000051 ()2-s2.0-85046033334 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180504

Available from: 2018-04-27 Created: 2018-04-27 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved

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