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Multiphysics Characterization of SiC Power Modules
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems. RISE Acreo AB.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5731-7859
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis proposes several novel silicon carbide power module design concepts. The goal has been to address the problems with the present designs. The electrical, thermal, and thermomechanical performances of the demonstrators have been evaluated along with presentations of methodologies of experimental and numerical characterizations.

Compact high-temperature power modules with adequate cooling systems are attractive to automotive applications. Therefore, a novel thermal design of a double-sided liquid/air cooled silicon carbide power module (1200 V, 200 A) has been proposed. The concept integrates a dc-link capacitor, a gate driver board, and finned cooling channels. The cooling concept has been evaluated for three application scenarios based on a validated computational fluid dynamics model. Moreover, a simulation methodology has been developed to quantify the effect of different materials and thicknesses of the cold plates on the temperature of the silicon carbide power dies.

For medium- and high-power applications, contemporary research concludes that the reliability of the existing packaging technology needs to be improved. Therefore, this work proposes a novel press-pack silicon carbide power module concept. The concept enables bondless package and allows for an order of magnitude higher clamping force on the heatsinks than what can be applied on the dies. First, experimental and numerical methodologies for thermomechanical performance characterization of a press-pack structure have been investigated. By using digital image correlation technique, the deformation of each stacked material layer has been obtained. The developed experiment has led to an analytical estimation of friction coefficients on the contact interfaces. The co-influence of the design parameters on the thermomechanical performance of the press-pack structure has been analyzed through a parametric study based on a finite element model. Second, the novel double press-pack silicon carbide power module concept has been evaluated in a demonstrator in terms of parasitic inductance, thermal resistance, and thermomechanical stress.

Furthermore, many of the power module designs only stay at the stage of proof-of-concept due to the cost of retooling of the manufacturing facility. Embedded power modules which employ advanced printed circuit board processing and die embedding technologies, enable a solution with possibility of low cost and mass production. Therefore, a novel design concept of a three-phase embedded power module (1200 V, 20 A) has been proposed. Simulation-driven design development has been implemented and lead to a fabricated demonstrator. The electromagnetic, thermal, and thermomechanical performances of the concept have been evaluated by simulations and compared to a commercially available power module.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling föreslår flera nya koncept för effektmoduler för effekthalvledarkomponenter i kiselkarbid. Målet har varit att belysa problemen med existerande lösningar. Elektriska, termiska och termomekaniska egenskaper hos demonstratorer har utvärderats tillsammans med beskrivningar av metoder för experimentell och numerisk karakterisering.

Kompakta moduler för höga temperaturer med anpassade kylsystem är attraktiva i fordonstillämpningar. För detta ändamål har en termisk konstruktion av en dubbelsidigt luft/vatten-kyld effektmodul (1200 V, 200 A) tagits fram. Konceptet inkluderar mellanledskondensator, gate-drivdon och kylkanaler med kylflänsar. Kylkonceptet har utvärderats med avseende på tre scenarier baserade på en validerad flödesdynamisk numerisk modell. Dessutom har en simuleringsmetod utvecklats med vilken temperaturen hos kiselkarbid-chipen kan kvantifieras beroende på val av olika material och materialtjocklek hos kylblocken.

För medel- och hög-effekt tillämpningar anses allmänt att kapslingsteknikens tillförlitlighet bör förbättras. Därför föreslås i detta arbete ett nytt presspack-koncept för kiselkarbidkomponenter. Konceptet möjliggör bondtrådslös kontaktering och tillåter en storleksordning högre inspänningstryck på kylarna än vad chipen tillåter. I ett första skede har metoder för experimentell och numerisk karakterisering av termomekaniska prestanda för presspack-strukturer undersökts. Genom att använda digital bildkorrelationsteknik har deformationen hos varje skikt i strukturen kunnat bestämmas. Det utvecklade experimentet har lett fram till en analytisk bestämning av friktionskoefficienter på kontaktytorna. Den kombinerade inverkan av olika konstruktionsparametrar har analyserats genom en parametrisk studie som baseras på en finit-element-modell. I det senare skedet har det föreslagna presspack-konceptet utvärderats med hjälp av en experimentell prototyp. Parasitisk induktans, termisk resistans och termomekaniska spänningar har undersökts.

Många nya kapslingskoncept stannar på det konceptuella stadiet pga kostnader för produktionsverktyg. Inbäddade effektmoduler som använder avancerade mönsterkortsmetoder och chip-integrationsteknik, möjliggör lösningar med låga tillverkningskostnader vid massproduktion. Med detta i åtanke har ett koncept för en inbäddad trefasmodul (1200 V, 20 A) tagits fram. Simuleringsdriven konstruktion har använts för att färdigställa en prototyp. Elektromagnetiska, termiska och termomekaniska egenskaper för konceptet har utvärderats genom simuleringar och jämförelser med en kommersiellt tillgänglig effektmodul.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 66
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:44
Keywords [en]
Silicon carbide, power electronics, power electronics packaging, experiment, modeling and simulation, computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis, multiphysics
Keywords [sv]
Kiselkarbid, effektelektronik, effektelektronisk kapsling, experiment, modellering och simulering, flödesdynamisk numerisk modellering, finit-element-analys, multifysik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228068ISBN: 978-91-7729-818-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-228068DiVA, id: diva2:1206642
Public defence
2018-06-15, K2, Teknikringen 28, Kemi, floor 5, KTH Campus, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180521

Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Thermal evaluation of a liquid/air cooled integrated power inverter for hybrid vehicle applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal evaluation of a liquid/air cooled integrated power inverter for hybrid vehicle applications
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2013 (English)In: 2013 14th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2013, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 6529944-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A thermal design of an integrated double-side cooled SiC 50kW-1200V-200A power inverter for hybrid electric vehicle applications has been proposed to enable cooling in two different automotive operating environments: under-hood and controlled temperature environment of passenger compartment. The power inverter is integrated with air/liquid cooled cold plates equipped with finned channels. Concept evaluation and CFD model calibration have been performed on a simplified thermal prototype. Computational experiments on the detailed model of the inverter, including packaging materials, have been performed for automotive industry defined application scenarios, including two extreme and one typical driving cycles. For the studied application scenarios the case temperature of the SiC transistors and diodes have been found to be below 210°C. The maximum steady-state temperature of the DC-link capacitor has been below 127 °C for the worst-case scenario including liquid cooling, and up to 140 °C for the worst-case scenario with air-cooling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2013
Keywords
Application scenario, Computational experiment, Controlled temperature, Operating environment, Passenger compartment, Steady-state temperature, Thermal evaluations, Vehicle applications
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-127046 (URN)10.1109/EuroSimE.2013.6529944 (DOI)000326869600055 ()2-s2.0-84880987018 (Scopus ID)9781467361385 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 14th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2013; Wroclaw; Poland; 14 April 2013 through 17 April 2013
Note

QC 20140127

Available from: 2013-08-28 Created: 2013-08-28 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
2. Investigation of a Finned Baseplate Material and Thickness Variation for Thermal Performance of a SiC Power Module
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of a Finned Baseplate Material and Thickness Variation for Thermal Performance of a SiC Power Module
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2014 (English)In: 2014 15th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, article id 6813817Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A simplified transient computational fluid dynamics model of an automotive three-phase double-side liquid cooled silicon carbide power inverter, including pin-fin baseplates, has been developed and qualified for parametric studies. Effective heat transfer coefficients have been extracted from the detailed pin-fin baseplate model for two coolant volume flow rates 2 l/min and 6 l/min, at the coolant temperature 105 degrees C. The inverter model includes temperature dependent heat losses of SiC transistors and diodes, calculated for two driving cycles. Baseplate materials such as copper, aluminum-silicon carbide metal matrix composite, aluminium alloy 6061 as well as virtual materials have been evaluated in the parametric studies. Thermal conductivity, specific heat and density have been varied as well as thickness of the finned baseplates (1 to 3 mm). A trade-off between temperature of SiC chips and baseplate weight has been investigated by means of Pareto optimization. The main results of the parametric studies include a weak dependence (1 to 3 degrees C) of the chip temperature on baseplate thickness. Furthermore, switching e.g. between copper and AlSiC results in 5 to 8 degrees C increase of the chip temperature, at 65 to 70 % baseplate weight reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206153 (URN)10.1109/EuroSimE.2014.6813817 (DOI)000355308000053 ()2-s2.0-84901397486 (Scopus ID)9781479947904 (ISBN)
Conference
15th international Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE APR 07-09 2014,Ghent, Belgium
Note

QC 20170519

Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
3. Thermomechanical Analysis and Characterization of a Press-Pack Structure for SiC Power Module Packaging Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermomechanical Analysis and Characterization of a Press-Pack Structure for SiC Power Module Packaging Applications
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 1089-1100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experimental methodology for the characterization of thermomechanical displacement and friction properties in a free-floating press-pack structure, and evaluation of the tensile stress on the semiconductor die through simulation of different mechanical and thermal loading conditions. The press-pack structure consists of a single silver-metallized (1 μm) silicon carbide die (400 μm) in contact with rhodium-coated (0.4 μm) molybdenum square plates. The thermomechanical displacements in the press-pack structure have been obtained using the digital image correlation technique, and the mean random error has been $± $0.1 μm, which is approximately 10 ppm of the measured length (10.5 mm). The developed experimental method has led to an analytical estimation of friction coefficients on the interfaces' silicon carbide-molybdenum and molybdenum-copper. The results demonstrate that the thin silver layer behaves as a solid film lubricant. A 2-D finite-element model representing the experimental setup has been implemented. The difference in displacement between measurement and simulation is less than 8%. Furthermore, the coinfluence of the design parameters on the thermomechanical performance of the stacked structure has been analyzed through simulations. Finally, design guidelines to reduce the tensile stress on the silicon carbide die have been proposed regarding free-floating press-pack power electronics packaging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211157 (URN)10.1109/TCPMT.2017.2711272 (DOI)000409509300010 ()2-s2.0-85023771342 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170803

Available from: 2017-07-19 Created: 2017-07-19 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
4. Multiphysics Characterization of a Novel SiC Power Module
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiphysics Characterization of a Novel SiC Power Module
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2019 (English)In: IEEE transactions on components, packaging, and manufacturing technology. Part A (Print), ISSN 1070-9886, E-ISSN 1558-3678, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 489-501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a novel power module concept specially designed for highly reliable silicon carbide (SiC) power devices for medium- and high-power applications. The concept consists of two clamped structures: 1) a press-pack power stage accommodating SiC power switch dies and 2) perpendicularly clamped press-pack heatsinks, in which the heatsinks are in contact with electrically insulated case plates of the power stage. The concept enables bondless package with symmetric double-sided cooling of the dies and allows for an order of magnitude higher clamping force on the heatsinks than what can be applied on the dies. The concept has been evaluated in a first demonstrator (half-bridge configuration with 10 paralleled SiC dies in each position). The experimental methodologies, setups, and procedures have been presented. The commutation loop inductance is approximately 9 nH at 78 kHz. The junction-to-case thermal resistance is approximately 0.028 K/W. Furthermore, a simplified 3-D finite-element thermomechanical model representing the center unit of the demonstrator has been established for the purpose of future optimization. The accuracy of the simulated temperatures is within 4% compared to the measurements. Finally, a 3-D thermomechanical stress distribution map has been obtained for the simplified model of the demonstrator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228248 (URN)10.1109/TCPMT.2018.2873231 (DOI)000461334400012 ()2-s2.0-85054397136 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190318

Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2019-04-03Bibliographically approved
5. Simulation-driven development of a novel SiC embedded power module design concept
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation-driven development of a novel SiC embedded power module design concept
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2017 (English)In: 2017 18th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7926252Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Silicon carbide embedded power modules enable a compact and cost competitive packaging solution for high-switching frequency and high-temperature operation applications. Power module packaging technologies span several engineering domains. At the early design stage, simulation-driven development is necessary to shorten the design period and reduce the design cost. This paper presents a novel design concept of a three-phase embedded power module (1200 V, 20 A, 55 mm × 36 mm × 0.808 mm) including silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor and antiparallel diode dies. Based on the E/CAD design data different layer built-up designs have been tested against thermal, mechanical, and electrical behavior. The obtained simulation data then have been evaluated against a commercial available power module (Motion Smart Power Module SMP33) which utilizes over mold direct bonded copper substrates with soldered semiconductor dies and bond wire contacts. Compared to the conventional module, the loop conductive interconnection parasitic inductance and resistance of the design concept (Vdc+ to Vdc-) reduces approximately by 88 % and 72 %, respectively. The average junction to case thermal resistance has been improved by approximately more than 10 % even though the total package size reduces by approximately 88 %. Furthermore, the contours of deformation and stresses have been investigated for the design concept in the thermomechanical simulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-209729 (URN)10.1109/EuroSimE.2017.7926252 (DOI)000403217700041 ()2-s2.0-85020187958 (Scopus ID)9781509043446 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2017, Dresden, Germany, 3 April 2017 through 5 April 2017
Note

QC 20170626

Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved

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