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Wastewater purification and removal of micropollutants in a soiltreatment system and by subsequent filtration through activatedcarbon and xyloid lignite – a field experiment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6617-4001
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Soil treatment systems (STS) are often used in rural areas to remove nutrients and microorganisms from wastewater. These and other facilities designed for on-site sewage treatment should also have the capacity to remove micropollutants (MPs), i.e. pharmaceuticals, personal care products, detergents, polymer additives, and other synthetic organic compounds. In a six-month study on a medium-scale STS with two add-on filters installed to purify the effluent, possible removal enhancement of MPs, phosphorus (Ptot) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) was examined. The filters contained granular activated carbon (GAC) and xyloid lignite (Xylit). A total of 58 compounds were detected, comprising artificial sweeteners (n = 2), organophosphates (n = 7), parabens (n = 3), personal care products (n = 7), pesticides (n = 2), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) (n = 3), pharmaceuticals (n = 27), a plasticiser, a polymer impurity, a rubber additive, stimulants (n = 3) and a surfactant. The concentrations in influent water to the STS ranged from 1.3 ng L-1 (ranitidine) to 110 μg L-1 (acetaminophen). Mean removal rate of MPs by the STS was 49 ± 56 %. The add-on filters significantly improved (ANOVA, p<0.001) removal of MPs, despite treating a high hydraulic load (2350 L m-2 day-1). The GAC and Xylit filters removed 98 ± 6 % and 87 ± 28 %, respectively, demonstrating the potential of these materials to reduce MPs in STS effluent to very low concentrations. The add-on filters did not improve removal of P and NH4-N from STS effluent, but the GAC-based filter improved removal of organics (COD) by 5%. 

Keywords [en]
add-on filter, on-site sewage facilitiy, trace organic chemicals, granular activated carbon, Xylit
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234666OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-234666DiVA, id: diva2:1246498
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-2101
Note

QC 20180907

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. An add-on filter technique to improve micropollutant removal and water quality in on-site sewage treatment facilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An add-on filter technique to improve micropollutant removal and water quality in on-site sewage treatment facilities
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Onsite sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in Sweden currently release significant amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) into groundwater or/and receiving water bodies. Micropollutants (MPs) have been found in both surface water and groundwater, indicating insufficient removal of MPs by OSSFs. Two laboratory-scale column experiments, followed by a field experiment, were performed to study removal of a set of organic MPs by organic and inorganic sorbents. The set covered different product categories, e.g. an artificial sweetener, organophosphates, parabens, personal care products, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pesticides, pharmaceuticals, a plasticiser, a polymer impurity, stimulants and surfactants. An experiment using five organic and five inorganic sorbents showed that coal-based organic sorbents performed better than natural fibre and inorganic sorbents in removal of MPs, with 20% higher removal efficiency on average. Five sorbents were selected for a long-term column experiment examining 31 MPs. Physical properties and chemical structure of the sorbents, namely pore structure and surface functional groups, were found to be correlated to their capacity for removal of MPs. Molecular weight, solvent-accessible area, octanol-water partition coefficient and distribution-coefficient of PFASs were found to be strongly positively correlated with their removal by some sorbents. Organic sorbents with good performance in removal of MPs and a conventional sand bed showed limited ability to remove P, while calcium-rich sorbents increased P removal greatly. Two sorbents, granulated activated carbon (GAC) and xyloid lignite (Xylit), were tested for 24 weeks in an add-on filter for effluent from a soil treatment system and found to significantly improve removal of MPs. A replaceable add-on unit for removal of MPs from OSSF effluent is recommended and should contain an organic sorbent such as GAC or Xylit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 54
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1821
Keywords
Micropollutant, on-site sewage facilities, physicochemical properties, pore structure, sorbents, surface functional group
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234314 (URN)978-91-7729-936-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-28, D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-2101
Note

QC 20180907

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved

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