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Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence
KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2926-6518
KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
1995 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 5, no 98, p. 2524-2531Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In acoustic communication timing seems to be an exceedingly important aspect. The just noticeable difference ~jnd! for small perturbations of an isochronous sequence of sounds is particularly important in music, in which such sequences frequently occur. This article reviews the literature in the area and presents an experiment designed to resolve some conflicting results in the literature regarding the tempo dependence for quick tempi and relevance of music experience. The jnd for a perturbation of the timing of a tone appearing in an isochronous sequence was examined by the method of adjustment. Thirty listeners of varied musical background were asked to adjust the position of the fourth tone in a sequence of six, such that they heard the sequence as perfectly isochronous. The tones were presented at a constant interonset time that was varied between 100 and 1000 ms. The absolute jnd was found to be approximately constant at 6 ms for tone interonset intervals shorter than about 240 ms and the relative jnd constant at 2.5% of the tone interonsets above 240 ms. Subjects’ musical training did not affect these values. Comparison with previous work showed that a constant absolute jnd below 250 ms and constant relative jnd above 250 ms tend to appear regardless of the perturbation type, at least if the sequence is relatively short.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1995. Vol. 5, no 98, p. 2524-2531
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234428Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-0028793271OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-234428DiVA, id: diva2:1246561
Note

QC 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Quantitative Rule System for Musical Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Quantitative Rule System for Musical Performance
1995 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
A Quantitative Rule System for Musical Expression
Abstract [en]

A rule system is described that translates an input score file to a musical performance. The rules model different principles of interpretation used by real musicians, such as phrasing, punctuation, harmonic and melodic structure, micro timing, accents, intonation, and final ritard. These rules have been applied primarily to Western classical music but also to contemporary music, folk music and jazz. The rules consider mainly melodic aspects, i. e., they look primarily at pitch and duration relations, disregarding repetitive rhythmic patterns. A complete description and discussion of each rule is presented. The effect of each rule applied to a music example is demonstrated on the CD-ROM. A complete implementation is found in the program Director Musices, also included on the CD-ROM.

The smallest deviations that can be perceived in a musical performance, i. e., the JND, was measured in three experiments. In one experiment the JND for displacement of a single tone in an isochronous sequence was found to be 6 ms for short tones and 2.5% for tones longer than 250 ms. In two other experiments the JND for rule-generated deviations was measured. Rather similar values were found despite different musical situations, provided that the deviations were expressed in terms of the maximum span, MS. This is a measure of a parameter's maximum deviation from a deadpan performance in a specific music excerpt. The JND values obtained were typically 3-4 times higher than the corresponding JNDs previously observed in psychophysical experiments.

Evaluation, i. e. the testing of the generality of the rules and the principles they reflect, has been carried out using four different methods: (1) listening tests with fixed quantities, (2) preference tests where each subject adjusted the rule quantity, (3) tracing of the rules in measured performances, and (4) matching of rule quantities to measured performances. The results confirmed the validity of many rules and suggested later realized modifications of others.

Music is often described by means of motion words. The origin of such analogies was pursued in three experiments. The force envelope of the foot while walking or dancing was transferred to sound level envelopes of tones. Sequences of such tones, repeated at different tempi were perceived by expert listeners as possessing motion character, particularly when presented at the original walking tempo. Also, some of the character of the original walking or dancing could be mediated to the listeners by means of these tone sequences. These results suggest that the musical expressivity might be increased in rule-generated performances if rules are implemented which reflect locomotion patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 1995
Keywords
music performance, expression, interpretation, rules, computer music, midi, jnd, time discrimination, locomotion, motion, listening experiment, perception, timing, phrasing, intonation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234689 (URN)
Public defence
1995-05-26, Kollegiesalen, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-09 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved

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Scopushttp://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/417.pdf

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Sundberg, Johan

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