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A Quantitative Rule System for Musical Performance
KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2926-6518
1995 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
A Quantitative Rule System for Musical Expression (English)
Abstract [en]

A rule system is described that translates an input score file to a musical performance. The rules model different principles of interpretation used by real musicians, such as phrasing, punctuation, harmonic and melodic structure, micro timing, accents, intonation, and final ritard. These rules have been applied primarily to Western classical music but also to contemporary music, folk music and jazz. The rules consider mainly melodic aspects, i. e., they look primarily at pitch and duration relations, disregarding repetitive rhythmic patterns. A complete description and discussion of each rule is presented. The effect of each rule applied to a music example is demonstrated on the CD-ROM. A complete implementation is found in the program Director Musices, also included on the CD-ROM.

The smallest deviations that can be perceived in a musical performance, i. e., the JND, was measured in three experiments. In one experiment the JND for displacement of a single tone in an isochronous sequence was found to be 6 ms for short tones and 2.5% for tones longer than 250 ms. In two other experiments the JND for rule-generated deviations was measured. Rather similar values were found despite different musical situations, provided that the deviations were expressed in terms of the maximum span, MS. This is a measure of a parameter's maximum deviation from a deadpan performance in a specific music excerpt. The JND values obtained were typically 3-4 times higher than the corresponding JNDs previously observed in psychophysical experiments.

Evaluation, i. e. the testing of the generality of the rules and the principles they reflect, has been carried out using four different methods: (1) listening tests with fixed quantities, (2) preference tests where each subject adjusted the rule quantity, (3) tracing of the rules in measured performances, and (4) matching of rule quantities to measured performances. The results confirmed the validity of many rules and suggested later realized modifications of others.

Music is often described by means of motion words. The origin of such analogies was pursued in three experiments. The force envelope of the foot while walking or dancing was transferred to sound level envelopes of tones. Sequences of such tones, repeated at different tempi were perceived by expert listeners as possessing motion character, particularly when presented at the original walking tempo. Also, some of the character of the original walking or dancing could be mediated to the listeners by means of these tone sequences. These results suggest that the musical expressivity might be increased in rule-generated performances if rules are implemented which reflect locomotion patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 1995.
Keywords [en]
music performance, expression, interpretation, rules, computer music, midi, jnd, time discrimination, locomotion, motion, listening experiment, perception, timing, phrasing, intonation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234689OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-234689DiVA, id: diva2:1246650
Public defence
1995-05-26, Kollegiesalen, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-09 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Generative Rules for Music Performance: A Formal Description of a Rule System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generative Rules for Music Performance: A Formal Description of a Rule System
1991 (English)In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 56-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
music performance, rule system
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234442 (URN)
Note

QCR 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-08 Created: 2018-09-08 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
2. Performance Rules for Computer-Controlled Contemporary Keyboard Music
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Rules for Computer-Controlled Contemporary Keyboard Music
1991 (English)In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A computer program for synthesis of music performance, originally developed for traditional tonal music by means of an analysis-by-synthesis strategy, is applied to contemporary piano music as well as to various computer-generated random music. The program consists of rules that manipulate the durations and sound levels of the tones in a contextdependent way. When applying the rules to this music, the concept harmonic charge, which has been found useful for generating crescendi and diminuendi in performance of traditional tonal music for example, is replaced by chromatic charge. The music is performed on a Casio sampler controlled by a Macintosh II microcomputer. A listening panel of five experts on contemporary piano music or electroacoustic music clearly preferred performances processed by the performance program to "deadpan" performances mechanically replicating the durations and sound levels nominally written in the music score. 

Keywords
music performance
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234443 (URN)
Note

QCR 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-08 Created: 2018-09-08 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
3. Recent musical performance research at KTH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent musical performance research at KTH
1994 (English)In: Proceedings of the Aarhus symposium on Generative grammars for music performance 1994, 1994, p. 7-12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234434 (URN)
Conference
Aarhus symposium on Generative grammars for music performance 1994
Note

QCR 20180918

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
4. Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence
1995 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 5, no 98, p. 2524-2531Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In acoustic communication timing seems to be an exceedingly important aspect. The just noticeable difference ~jnd! for small perturbations of an isochronous sequence of sounds is particularly important in music, in which such sequences frequently occur. This article reviews the literature in the area and presents an experiment designed to resolve some conflicting results in the literature regarding the tempo dependence for quick tempi and relevance of music experience. The jnd for a perturbation of the timing of a tone appearing in an isochronous sequence was examined by the method of adjustment. Thirty listeners of varied musical background were asked to adjust the position of the fourth tone in a sequence of six, such that they heard the sequence as perfectly isochronous. The tones were presented at a constant interonset time that was varied between 100 and 1000 ms. The absolute jnd was found to be approximately constant at 6 ms for tone interonset intervals shorter than about 240 ms and the relative jnd constant at 2.5% of the tone interonsets above 240 ms. Subjects’ musical training did not affect these values. Comparison with previous work showed that a constant absolute jnd below 250 ms and constant relative jnd above 250 ms tend to appear regardless of the perturbation type, at least if the sequence is relatively short.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234428 (URN)2-s2.0-0028793271 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
5. Threshold and preference Quantities of Rules for Music Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Threshold and preference Quantities of Rules for Music Performance
1991 (English)In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 71-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an analysis- by-synthesis investigation of music performance, rules have been developed that describe when and how expressive deviations are made from the nominal music notation in the score. Two experiments that consider the magnitudes of such deviations are described. In Experiment 1, the musicians' and nonmusicians' sensitivities to expressive deviations generated by seven performance rules are compared. The musicians showed a clearly greater sensitivity. In Experiment 2, professional musicians adjusted to their satisfaction the quantity by which six rules affected the performance. For most rules, there was a reasonable agreement between the musicians regarding preference. The preferred quantities seemed close to the threshold of perceptibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of California Press, 1991
Keywords
music performance
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234445 (URN)A1991HF51200004 ()
Note

QC 20180910

Available from: 2018-09-08 Created: 2018-09-08 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
6. Just Noticable Difference in duration, pitch and sound level in a musical context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Just Noticable Difference in duration, pitch and sound level in a musical context
1994 (English)In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, Liège 1994, 1994, p. 339-340Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234432 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, Liège 1994
Note

QCR 20180918

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
7. Music and locomotion. a study of the perception of tones with level envelopes replicating force patterns of walking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Music and locomotion. a study of the perception of tones with level envelopes replicating force patterns of walking
1992 (English)In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 109-122Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Music listening ofien produces associations to locomotion. This suggests that some patterns in music are similar to those perceived during locomotion. The present investigation tests the hypothesis that the sound level envelope of tones allude to force patterns associated with walking and dancing. Six examples of such force patterns were recorded using a force platform, and the vertical components were translated from kg to dB and used as level envelopes for tones. Sequences of four copies of each of these tones were presented with four different fixed inter-onset times. Music students were asked to characterize these sequences in three tests. In one test, the subjects were free to use any expression, and the occurrence of motion words in the responses was examined. In another test, they were asked to describe, ifpossible, the motion characteristics of the sequences, and the number of blank responses were studied. In the third test, they were asked to describe the sequences along 24 motion adjective scales, and the responses were submitted to a factor analysis. The results from the three tests showed a reasonable degree of coherence, suggesting that associations to locomotions are likely to occur under these conditions, particularly when (1) the inter-onset time is similar to the inter-step time typical of walking, and (2) when the inter-onset time agreed with that observed when the gait patterns were recorded. The latter observation suggests that the different motion patterns thus translated to sound level envelopes also may convey information on the type of motion.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234441 (URN)
Note

QC 20180914

Available from: 2018-09-08 Created: 2018-09-08 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
8. Rules for musical performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rules for musical performance
1994 (English)Other (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234435 (URN)
Note

QCR 20180918

Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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