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Microwave Assisted Hydrothermal Carbonization and Solid State Postmodification of Carbonized Polypropylene
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7790-8987
2018 (English)In: ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 11105-11114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Functional carbon materials produced through a hydrothermal treatment of waste products have gained interest. Particularly, the method is considered more facile and green compared to conventional decomposition methods. Here, we demonstrated an upcycling of polypropylene (PP) waste to carbon materials by a microwave assisted hydro thermal treatment. The solid product obtained from the hydrothermal treatment was analyzed by multiple techniques to reveal the structure and the influence of processing conditions on PP degradation and hydrothermal carbonization. Chemical analyses showed the presence of carbonaceous material independent of acid amount (20 and 30 mL), temperature (210 and 250 degrees C), and time (20-80 min). A complete transformation of PP content to amorphous carbon required 60 min at 250 degrees C. The mass yield of the solid product decreased as a function of harsher processing conditions. At the same time, thermogravimetric analysis illustrated products with increasing thermal stability and a larger amount of remaining residue at 600 degrees C. The solid products consisted of irregular fragments and sheet-like structures. A solid state microwave process in air atmosphere was performed on a product with incomplete carbonization. The modification resulted in a decreased C/O ratio, and TGA analysis in nitrogen showed high thermal stability and degree of carbonization as indicated by the remaining residue of 86.4% at 600 degrees C. The new insights provided on the hydrothermal carbonization, and postmodification in air atmosphere, can catalyze effective handling of plastic waste by enabling transformation of low quality waste into functional carbon materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC , 2018. Vol. 6, no 8, p. 11105-11114
Keywords [en]
Plastic waste, Polypropylene, Microwave, Hydrothermal, Hydrochar, Carbonization
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234193DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02580ISI: 000441475500170Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85049957721OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-234193DiVA, id: diva2:1252456
Note

QC 20181001

Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hydrothermal recycling of natural and synthetic polymers to functional carbon materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrothermal recycling of natural and synthetic polymers to functional carbon materials
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Utilizing renewable recourses and waste recycling are necessary for reaching a circular resource society. The concept of this thesis was to set up a sustainable recycling route, suitable even for low quality biopolymer and plastic waste for production of functional carbon materials. Carbonaceous materials were prepared by mild hydrothermal carbonizations of cellulose and polypropylene (PP) under acidic conditions. The carbonization of cellulose resulted mainly in micro-/nanometer sized carbon spheres (CS) with polar functionalities. After carbonization of PP, products were found in solid and liquid phase. Completely carbonized solid carbons products were obtained from PP at 250 °C after 60 min. The liquid products from the same process displayed aromatics and exhibited fluorescence properties. In addition, new carbon materials were prepared by acid, base and thermal treatments of the carbonized products at low temperatures. Thermally resistant carbon products and antibacterial CS towards both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were demonstrated as possible applications for these products. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of CS were 200-400 µg mL-1 depending on the bacteria strain and reached after only 3 h. Furthermore, nanometer sized carbon nanodots with high oxygenation degree and fluorescence properties were derived together with carbon flakes (CF) from the carbonized products. The CF with flat and micrometer sized morphology and polar groups were utilized for coating of cationized cellulose filters, applied as adsorbents and then subsequently as surfaces for SALDI-MS analysis of environmental contaminants. This work contributes with new routes to and applications for functional carbon materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 75
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2019:18
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248720 (URN)978-91-7873-156-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-09, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190411

Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved

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Adolfsson, Karin H.Hakkarainen, Minna

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