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Techno-economic assessment of wind energy for renewable hydrogen production in Sweden
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. NA. (Division of Energy Systems Analysis)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9905-1964
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wind energy deployment has been growing globally. The resource is expected to play an important role in achieving economic and environmental sustainability - depending on its level of availability, economics, and policy.  Sweden has committed to have 20 TWh/year production of onshore wind energy in the national electricity sector by the year 2020. Further, Sweden has a target for a fossil fuel free transport sector by 2030. Local wind energy coupled to electrolysis-derived hydrogen fuel production offers a pathway for achieving both targets. The analysis of wind energy’s potential in this context necessitates a new type of approach, one that captures the complexities of wind turbine siting in relation to the build-up of hydrogen infrastructure, including refueling stations. In this thesis, high-resolution spatial assessments were performed to evaluate wind energy and wind-to-hydrogen energy potentials, including land use restrictions and techno-economic evaluations. The methodology combines Geographic Information System (GIS) data with the Hybrid Optimization Model for Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) tool and includes key constraints with the purpose of improving the fidelity of the assessments.

Overall, significant potentials for wind and hydrogen energy can be harnessed in Sweden. Wind-generated hydrogen can be produced economically at selected sites along existing roads. After applying all possible land use restrictions, results show that around 31% of the total land area is viable for wind energy applications in the country. In total, 190 TWh/year wind electricity could be generated in areas within 30 km from the national electricity grid. Moreover, approximately 26000 kton/year of hydrogen fuel could be supplied by installing wind turbines on the viable land area. While considering standalone wind-powered hydrogen refueling stations, the cost of hydrogen lies in the range of 6-10 USD∕kg, depending on wind speed models employed and other factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology KTH , 2018. , p. 40
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2018:57
Keywords [en]
GIS, wind energy, renewable hydrogen, land use restrictions, transport fuel.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239425ISBN: 978-91-7873-049-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-239425DiVA, id: diva2:1265105
Public defence
2018-12-18, Q2, KTH Main Campus, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wind energy assessment considering geographic and environmental restrictions in Sweden: A GIS-based approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind energy assessment considering geographic and environmental restrictions in Sweden: A GIS-based approach
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2015 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 83, p. 447-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wind energy being a freely available and low-carbon energy source has got the focus of decision makers around the world, because wind energy systems can reduce the dependence of a nation on fossil fuels and can contribute to a sustainable development of both climate and energy. However, wind power comes with certain environmental impacts and land use constraints that should be taken into account, in order to reach main sustainability goals concerning biodiversity and ecosystem services. The Swedish national goal regarding wind energy development has been set to 30 TWh by the year 2020, of which 20 TWh should come from the on-shore wind energy resource. Therefore, wind energy development in Sweden could play an important role in achieving the future energy and environmental targets. In this regard, we assessed the wind energy potential available in Sweden using a GIS-based approach. We aimed to estimate the technical onshore wind energy potential available in Sweden by considering system performance, topographic limitations, environmental, and land use constraints in the form of two restriction scenarios. The results of this paper can draw the attention of decision makers to reach a sustainable wind energy development in Sweden. The results achieved in this paper suggest that Sweden possesses sufficient wind energy potential and land area available for wind energy installations, which can be used to meet the future renewable energy targets in Sweden.

National Category
Environmental Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
SRA - Energy; Land and Water Resources Engineering; Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160104 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2015.02.044 (DOI)000353731200042 ()2-s2.0-84926420562 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

Additional funding: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan

QC 20150521

Available from: 2015-02-15 Created: 2015-02-15 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
2. Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology
2016 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 128, p. 211-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to modern advancements in renewable energy systems and increasing prices of fossil fuels wind energy is getting a lot of attention all over the world. In this regard, Sweden also fixed motivated targets to get energy supply from local renewable energy resources. So, local wind power could help the country in achieving the targets. In this study, economic indicators of wind energy were spatially estimated for Sweden by using ArcGIS tool. In order to do this, as input data one-year high resolution modeled annual average wind data was processed by means of Rayleigh distribution, wind turbine power curve, land use constraints, technical constraints and economic parameters. Based on the input data, it was concluded that Sweden possesses economically feasible wind energy resource. The results of the study indicate that southern and central regions could produce economically viable wind electricity in all aspects as compared to the northern region of the country. Lastly, it was recommended to speed up wind energy penetration in Sweden, communal awareness and acceptance regarding the resource should be increased to avoid possible misunderstanding. Additionally, the capability of the national electric grid should be enhanced to take up the large scale unpredictable wind energy resource.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Economic, GIS, Indicators, Spatial, Wind electricity, Economics, Energy resources, Fossil fuels, Geographic information systems, Indicators (instruments), Input output programs, Land use, Renewable energy resources, Wind effects, Wind power, Wind turbines, Economic indicators, Economic parameters, Economically viable, Rayleigh distributions, Renewable energy systems, Technical constraints, Economic analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195204 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.09.055 (DOI)000388047800019 ()2-s2.0-84989227706 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161202

Available from: 2016-12-02 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
3. A preliminary assessment of wind generated hydrogen production potential to reduce the gasoline fuel used in road transport sector of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A preliminary assessment of wind generated hydrogen production potential to reduce the gasoline fuel used in road transport sector of Sweden
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2015 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, p. 6501-6511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen produced with the help of local wind energy resource can be considered as a key energy carrier, which can play a major role in switching the transport fuels from fossil to renewable. In this paper, we preliminary assessed the wind generated hydrogen production potential in order to provide the environmentally clean, renewable and cheap fuel to the road transport sector of Sweden. Vestas-112 wind turbine (V-112) and proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer were used as main components. Land use restrictions related to wind to hydrogen energy installation were also taken into account. Geographic Information System (GIS) tool was used for this study. We estimated that in Sweden, 25,580 ktons/year of hydrogen can be produced by using local wind energy resource, which is equivalent to 860 TWh of energy. Moreover, by using per capita gasoline consumption of Sweden, it was also estimated that during year 2011, 2900 ktons of imported gasoline was used in transport sector, which emitted 8700 ktons of CO2 into the local atmosphere of country. It was also estimated that in Sweden, gasoline consumption and CO2 emission can be reduced to 50% by using only 530 ktons i.e. (2%) of total local wind generated hydrogen production.

National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology; Land and Water Resources Engineering; SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163226 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.03.108 (DOI)000354581100002 ()2-s2.0-84928762327 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150608

Available from: 2015-03-30 Created: 2015-03-30 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
4. Economic analysis of standalone wind-powered hydrogen refueling stations for road transport at selected sites in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic analysis of standalone wind-powered hydrogen refueling stations for road transport at selected sites in Sweden
2015 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, no 32, p. 9855-9865Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The road transport sector of Sweden depends heavily on fossil fuels imported from neighboring countries. Renewable hydrogen fuel produced by using local wind electricity may be used as possible alternative fuel to reduce the gasoline fuel usage in the road transport sector of the country. By replacing the gasoline fuel with indigenous renewable hydrogen fuel in road transport sector, enormous savings of revenue and environment could be achieved. In this paper, we performed an economic analysis of standalone wind powered hydrogen refueling stations at three selected sites in Sweden. This analysis is done by using HOMER. Results specify that at selected sites renewable hydrogen fuel can be produced around the year to successfully refuel 200 vehicles on daily basis. The levelized cost of hydrogen (COH) achieved by refueling stations having V112 wind turbine ranged from 5.18 to 7.25 US$/kgH(2), whereas it ranged from 6.52 to 9.62 US$/kgH(2) for stations having V82 wind turbines. Influence of wind speed variation on the cost of hydrogen (COH) was also checked and 17%-19% reduction in hydrogen cost was achieved when wind speed was increased from 4.5 to 5 m/s. From the obtained results it can be concluded that hydrogen fuel utilization in transport sector can provide the economical and environmental benefits in Sweden. However, to implement this option on major scale in the country is a big challenge itself.

Keywords
Wind to hydrogen fuel, Economic analysis, HOMER, Road transport sector
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173141 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.05.021 (DOI)000359030100001 ()2-s2.0-84937522652 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150918

Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved

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