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Analysis of the most widely used building environmental assessment methods
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 175-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 3, no 3, p. 175-192
Keywords [en]
Building Environmental Assessment, LCA, BREEAM, LEED, GBTool, soft systems methodology
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7642DOI: 10.1080/15693430600903230OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7642DiVA, id: diva2:12729
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Approaches to energy efficient building development: studying under Chinese contexts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaches to energy efficient building development: studying under Chinese contexts
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a general description of approaches to energy efficient building development under Chinese contexts. The purpose of the work is to discuss how Chinese building development can be approved from an energy saving perspective.

Building development is a complicated process that relates to many stakeholders’ interests. The developed countries have studied in this field extensively for several decades. Generally, the approaches to energy saving can be set at three levels: administration, construction industry and architectural design. More new strict codes for energy efficient buildings are being issued for enforcement. At the same time, many research institutes have developed Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) methods, where energy efficiency is an important factor in the models. Various technical solutions for energy efficiency are developed as well.

The administrative approaches are not the main objective discussed in the thesis, though the importance of them is undeniable. BEA systems are not only assessment methods, but also market-based stimulating approaches for sustainability of construction market. Technical methods have been developed for a long period. Passive House and Low Exergy (LowEx) Systems are two representative examples in European countries.

All of these approaches are relatively unfamiliar to Chinese architects and developers, let alone their effect and applicability. The thesis tries to analyse this situation and their applicability within Chinese context.

In China to a certain project, the importance of technical issues is relatively recognized. However, a few successful individual cases in technique can not change the reality that most of new building development has failed in energy efficiency in China. This is a serious situation when China is in an enormous expansion phase in building new houses. The thesis tries to discuss the reasons for this phenomenon. One reason could be that the stakeholders in the developing process are not aware of the importance of collaboration which is the only method to get “Both Win” according to Game theory. The thesis discusses a paradigm to replace two traditional linear paradigms in building developing process. Architects should act as coordinators of different stakeholders rather than technical supporters.

The thesis tries to discuss the propositional route of developing energy efficient buildings. Technical approaches are basic research, which presents the concepts that have been proved realizable; BEA encourages developers to develop more energy efficient buildings for economic benefit, which will make good demonstrations for whole market; national laws and policies are final approaches, which ensure that every project will have good performance of energy efficiency. When the old standardization and legislation are finished, a new cycle will begin with more advanced techniques.

China government has started the progress to enhance energy efficiency. However, this process will be tough and slow. The thesis discusses Chinese special conditions and the problems that cry out for solution in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. p. vi, 28
Series
Trita-KET-IM, ISSN 1402-7615 ; 2007:23
Keywords
Energy efficiency, China, Passive House, Low Exergy system, Built Environmental Assessment, LCA, Swedish housing, Hammarby Sjöstad, Eco-village, Game theory, System theory, Soft Systems Methodology
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4534 (URN)
Presentation
2007-11-12, V12, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:10
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14 Last updated: 2010-11-05Bibliographically approved
2. An analysis of architectural and urban planning strategies for developing energy efficient cities in China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of architectural and urban planning strategies for developing energy efficient cities in China
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a detailed analysis of architecture and urban planning strategies for developingenergy-efficient cities in a Chinese context. The overall aim of the work is to examine how Chineseurbanisation and city construction can be improved from an energy-saving perspective.

China is in the process of transforming from an agricultural to an industrial country, and it willconsume more energy than ever before. Creating energy-efficient cities is an important part ofsustainable energy development. City development is a complicated process that affects the interestsof many stakeholders, and the strategies for establishing energy-efficient cities can be directed at twolevels: components and systems.

The main components of energy-efficient cities are energy-efficient buildings, which have been a hottopic in recent years. In China, a number of new, stricter codes for energy-efficient buildings arebeing issued. In addition, many research institutes have developed Building EnvironmentalAssessment (BEA) methods, where energy efficiency is an important factor in the models. Varioustechnical solutions for energy efficiency are also being developed. This thesis analyses differentsolutions and their applicability within the Chinese context.

The investigation in Nanjing clearly demonstrated that system-level strategies are vital for achievingenergy-efficient cities. The Swedish energy efficient models of the housing development HammarbySjöstad and the smaller scale Eco-villages were analysed to see if these solutions were compatiblewith the Chinese context. The strategies to reduce energy demands can be further subdivided intoreducing building energy consumption and reducing transportation energy consumption. Thesestrategies were implemented into the urban design for the southern region of Hexi New City District,Nanjing, which will be used as an example of new urban construction in a rapidly urbanising China.

This thesis proposes a route for developing energy-efficient cities. In the construction of Chinesecities, technological strategies for energy-efficient buildings have been implemented successfully, butthe systems structure of such cities requires special attention, particularly in the context of rapidurbanisation. Urban planning with energy considerations must be seen as equally important to thedevelopment of energy-efficient buildings. City planners should play a key role in this process, notby saving energy directly, but indirectly, by influencing the behaviour of persons living, working andtravelling within their city. Local and regional governments, which have special powers in China,should take responsibility for policymaking, demonstration, standardisation and education. In thebroad context of intelligent urban planning, technological, economic, and social strategies for energyefficientbuildings will all play a positive role.

China’s government has started the process of improving urban energy efficiency. However, thisprocess will be difficult and progress will be slow. The thesis discusses the conditions in the Chinesecontext and identifies problems that require solutions in the near future.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen presenterar en detaljerad analys av arkitektur- och stadsplaneringsstrategier för attutveckla energieffektiva städer i ett kinesiskt sammanhang. Det övergripande syftet med arbetet äratt undersöka hur kinesisk urbanisering och stadsbyggande kan förbättras För att minskaenergianvändning. Kina omvandlas snabbt från ett jordbrukssamhälle till ett industriland, vilket göratt energikonsumtionen ökar. Att skapa energieffektiva städer är en viktig del av hållbarstadsutveckling. Stadens utveckling är en komplicerad process som påverkar många intressenter, ochstrategierna för att skapa energieffektiva städer kan styras på två nivåer: komponenter och system.

Huvudkomponenterna i energieffektiva städer är energieffektiva byggnader, som har varit ett hettämne de senaste åren. I Kina utfärdas ett antal nya, strängare koder för energieffektiva byggnader.Dessutom har många forskningsinstitut utvecklat metoder för byggmiljöbedömning (BEA), därenergieffektivitet är en viktig faktor i modellerna. Olika tekniska lösningar för energieffektivitetutvecklas också. Denna avhandling analyserar olika lösningar och deras tillämplighet inom detkinesiska sammanhanget.

Undersökningen i Nanjing visade tydligt att systemnivåstrategier är avgörande för att uppnåenergieffektiva städer. De svenska energieffektiva modellerna av bostadsutvecklingen HammarbySjöstad och de småskaliga ekosamhällena analyserades för att se om dessa lösningar var kompatiblamed det kinesiska sammanhanget. Strategierna för att minska energibehovet i städer innehållerenergiförbrukningen i byggnader och energi för transporter. Dessa strategier utvecklades inomsamhällsplanering för den södra delen av Hexi New City District, Nanjing. Detta område kommeratt användas som ett exempel på ny stadsbyggnad i ett snabbt urbaniserande Kina.

Denna avhandling föreslår en väg för att utveckla energieffektiva städer. I byggandet av kinesiskastäder har tekniska strategier för energieffektiva byggnader genomförts framgångsrikt, mensystemstrukturen hos sådana städer kräver särskild uppmärksamhet, särskilt i samband med densnabba urbanisering som sker. Stadsplanering med energianvändning måste ses som lika viktig förutvecklingen som energieffektiva byggnader. Stadsplanerare bör spela en nyckelroll i denna process,inte genom att spara energi direkt, men indirekt, genom att påverka beteendet hos personer som bor,arbetar och reser inom deras stad. Lokala och regionala regeringar, som har särskilda befogenheter iKina, bör ta ansvar för beslutsfattande, demonstration, standardisering och utbildning. I det bredasammanhanget av intelligent stadsplanering, tekniska, ekonomiska och sociala strategier förenergieffektiva byggnader kommer alla aktörer att spela en positiv roll.

Kinas regering har påbörjat processen att förbättra städernas energieffektivitet. Denna processkommer dock att vara svår och framstegen kommer att gå långsamt. Avhandlingen diskuterarförhållandena i det kinesiska sammanhanget och identifierar problem som kräver lösningar inom ensnar framtid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 63
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1820
Keywords
Energy efficiency, Nanjing, China, urban planning, passive house, low exergy system, Building Environmental Assessment, LCA, Swedish housing, Hammarby Sjöstad, eco-village, game theory, systems theory, soft systems methodology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235651 (URN)978-91-7729-964-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-23, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20181002

Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved

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