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Upper limits of the photon fluence rate on CT detectors: Case study on a commercial scanner
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Physics of Medical Imaging. Royal Inst Technol, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5092-8822
Karolinska Univ Hosp, Unit Xray Phys, Sect Imaging Phys Solna, Dept Med Phys, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
Karolinska Univ Hosp, Unit Xray Phys, Sect Imaging Phys Solna, Dept Med Phys, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5575-7797
Karolinska Univ Hosp, Unit Xray Phys, Sect Imaging Phys Solna, Dept Med Phys, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
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2016 (English)In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 4398-4411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The highest photon fluence rate that a computed tomography (CT) detector must be able to measure is an important parameter. The authors calculate the maximum transmitted fluence rate in a commercial CT scanner as a function of patient size for standard head, chest, and abdomen protocols. Methods: The authors scanned an anthropomorphic phantom (Kyoto Kagaku PBU-60) with the reference CT protocols provided by AAPM on a GE LightSpeed VCT scanner and noted the tube current applied with the tube current modulation (TCM) system. By rescaling this tube current using published measurements on the tube current modulation of a GE scanner [N. Keat, "CT scanner automatic exposure control systems," MHRA Evaluation Report 05016, ImPACT, London, UK, 2005], the authors could estimate the tube current that these protocols would have resulted in for other patient sizes. An ECG gated chest protocol was also simulated. Using measured dose rate profiles along the bowtie filters, the authors simulated imaging of anonymized patient images with a range of sizes on a GE VCT scanner and calculated the maximum transmitted fluence rate. In addition, the 99th and the 95th percentiles of the transmitted fluence rate distribution behind the patient are calculated and the effect of omitting projection lines passing just below the skin line is investigated. Results: The highest transmitted fluence rates on the detector for the AAPM reference protocols with centered patients are found for head images and for intermediate-sized chest images, both with a maximum of 3.4 . 10(8) mm(-2) s-1, at 949 mm distance from the source. Miscentering the head by 50 mm downward increases the maximum transmitted fluence rate to 5.7 . 10(8) mm(-2) s(-1). The ECG gated chest protocol gives fluence rates up to 2.3 . 10(8)-3.6 . 10(8) mm(-2) s(-1) depending on miscentering. Conclusions: The fluence rate on a CT detector reaches 3 . 10(8)-6 . 10(8) mm(-2) s(-1) in standard imaging protocols, with the highest rates occurring for ECG gated chest and miscentered head scans. These results will be useful to developers of CT detectors, in particular photon counting detectors. (C) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER ASSOC PHYSICISTS MEDICINE AMER INST PHYSICS , 2016. Vol. 43, no 7, p. 4398-4411
Keywords [en]
fluence rate, count rate requirements, count rate problem, photon counting CT
National Category
Medical Equipment Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243843DOI: 10.1118/1.4954008ISI: 000379171900044PubMedID: 27370155Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84976381566OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-243843DiVA, id: diva2:1286663
Note

QC 20190207

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved

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Persson, MatsBornefalk, HansDanielsson, Mats

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