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Quality Assurance of Time Critical Data Using Adaptive Data Delivery Mechanisms in Smart Grids
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6330-3055
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Smart grids are proposed to integrate renewable energy and to improve the efficiency of power system operation. The challenges of integrating renewable energy are the inherent fluctuations of generation which are difficult to predict which may lead to challenges to the safe operation of power systems. Improving the efficiency of power systems means they should be operated closer to their limits. To solve these challenges, advanced protection and control applications, have been proposed that increase the accuracy of reactions and reduce the response time to events and faults. However, not all the data required for these applications can be delivered by the conventional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. As an example, synchrophasor data are intended to be delivered via a Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system, which can be seen as a parallel data delivery infrastructure to SCADA. As deployment of intelligent substation secondary devices such as Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), Merging Units (MUs), and Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), data volume and data resolution in the power systems is increasing. To flexibly share data in the power system, different data delivery architectures have been proposed. Flexible data sharing brings benefits of information resiliency from different data sources. But it also raises the requirements on cyber-security for protection of the smart grid applications. Such needs are in turn being gradually addressed by new cyber-security mechanisms.

In this thesis, the main quality attributes for time critical smart grid applications being; data accuracy, information resiliency, communication performance, and cyber-security and their interrelation are studied. Most previous research has been focused on assurance on one of these quality attributes, while in practical implementation the attributes are clearly related and interdependent. There is consequently a lack of study of the interactions between these quality attributes.

This thesis focuses on the interactions of three pairs of these four time critical data quality attributes. The hypothesis of the interaction of each pair has been formulated as research question which is answered in different sections of the thesis. The results of this thesis show that information resiliency can increase the data accuracy and enhance the communication performance assurance to the smart grid application. This is in the thesis shown by two of the contributions presented in this thesis, being the implementation and validation of an adaptive data source selection mechanism to realize at substation level and wide area system level separately. In addition, since cyber-security mechanisms can affect the communication performance, specifically latency, and a trade off between security and performance may be needed. A third contribution in the thesis is a framework incorporating these two time critical quality attributes consisting of  an adaptive cyber-security scheme which contributes to the incorporation of performance requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 69
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:16
Keywords [en]
time critical data quality, adaptive mechanisms, quality assurance, Smart Grid, information resiliency, data accuracy, end-to-end latency, cyber-security, substation automation, power system communication
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Industrial Information and Control Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243862ISBN: 978-91-7873-105-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-243862DiVA, id: diva2:1286842
Public defence
2019-03-13, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 22:41 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190208

Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bad Data Detection Using Linear WLS and Sampled Values in Digital Substations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bad Data Detection Using Linear WLS and Sampled Values in Digital Substations
Show others...
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 150-157, article id 7867789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smart Grids employ intelligent control applications that require high quality data: fast, secure, and error free. Several researchers have focused on providing techniques for low latency and secured data links for these applications. Bad data detection is however generally provided only at the central level due to limitations in legacy technologies employed in many substations. With the introduction of IEC61850 data sharing within the substation becomes more flexible and transparent allowing more sophisticated management of data quality. Hence, this paper proposes a substation level bad data detection algorithm to facilitate also these types of requirements from applications. The algorithm is based on automatically detecting the substation topology by parsing standard substation description files and online state of circuit breakers and disconnectors. By applying linear weighted least square based state estimation algorithm, bad data from failing current transformers (CT) can be detected. By conducting the verification of different types of bad data, the results show the output of bad data detection algorithm provides higher accuracy than output from both measurement and protective CT in both static and faulty situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
bad data detection, digital substation, Linear WLS, process bus, sampled values
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222247 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2017.2669110 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041035552 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180205

Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling of Communication Infrastructure Compatible to Nordic 32 Power System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of Communication Infrastructure Compatible to Nordic 32 Power System
2016 (English)In: IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society General Meeting 2016, IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Smart Grid integrates communication and computationtechnologies into power systems. Research on interdisciplinarytopics between power system and communicationsystems requires models for both systems. There are severalpower system models available representing standard powersystems and real power systems. However, lacking of theircorresponding communication infrastructure information leadsthe difficulty of communication system modeling. In this paper,a communication infrastructure model compatible to Nordic 32power system model has been developed and presented. In thismodel, Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) is incorporatedwith Supervisor Control and Data Acquisition system. Theparameters of this model are based on the data from a Nordicelectric power utility. Validation of the model is performedthrough comparison of results from simulation and a previousempirical data study performed on the same utility network. Inadditional, this model is simulated by using different Qualityof Service (QoS) mechanism. The obtained results show thatcongestion management mechanisms introduce additional delayto the highest priority traffic slightly. But traffics with lowerpriority can be benefit from congestion management mechanisms.The proposed model can be widely used for other research onNordic 32 power system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178167 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2016.7741521 (DOI)000399937901161 ()2-s2.0-85001959389 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE PES GM 2016
Note

QC 20170313

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of Bursty Event Traffic on Synchrophasor Delays in IEEE C37.118, IEC61850, and IEC60870
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Bursty Event Traffic on Synchrophasor Delays in IEEE C37.118, IEC61850, and IEC60870
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS (SMARTGRIDCOMM), IEEE , 2015, p. 478-484Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electric grids are increasingly relying on communication as grids get more stressed due to increasing penetration of renewables, inadequate transmission growth, and other factors. The IEEE detailed power system models have been widely used in power research. But lack of communication topologies or requirements leads to difficulties for results comparison or guidelines for utilities. Further, power grid communication often meet latency requirement by application during the steady state since in such state light traffic are generated. However, identical requirements can be stringent in the bulk power system over hundreds of miles especially when bursty aperiodic event messages are generated during a power disturbance. To address these shortcomings, this paper presents a detailed model of realistic communication for IEEE-14 bus system. Simulation measurement shows significant effects of bursty traffic from GOOSE disturbance event message over Wide Area Network on the delays suffered by other periodic traffic such as synchrophasor data, SCADA polling data, and Sampled Value exchanged between substations. The results also reveals significant scalability issues of centralized control center architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keywords
Bursty Event Traffic, Quality of Service, WAMC, IEC61850, C37.118
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-191614 (URN)10.1109/SmartGridComm.2015.7436346 (DOI)000380423300080 ()2-s2.0-84964931389 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8289-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), NOV 01-05, 2015, Miami, FL
Note

QC 20160908

Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-02 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
4. Adaptive data link configuration for WAMC applications using a Stateful Data Delivery Service platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive data link configuration for WAMC applications using a Stateful Data Delivery Service platform
2016 (English)In: Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, ISSN 0284-4354, E-ISSN 2352-4677, Vol. 6, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) applications provide, among other things, stability control to power systems by using global measurements. However, these measurements suffer unavoidable Quality of Service (QoS) problems, such as delay, during the transmission through a wide area communication network. Such delays potentially lead to failure of the control application. To overcome these effects, mechanisms that provide robustness to QoS problems for control applications and configuration of communication networks to optimize QoS performance have been proposed by several researchers. To optimize utilization of the communication infrastructure and to adapt to variations in QoS, applications can benefit from an interface to request and obtain QoS information from a managed communication infrastructure. To meet this need, a novel Stateful Data Delivery Service (SDDS) for WAMC applications is proposed in this paper. The SDDS monitors the QoS performance online and provides feedback to one or more WAMC applications. To increase reliability of the applications, the SDDS also provides adaptive data link configuration services. By using online QoS measurements and multiple data sources, the SDDS platform can provide a WAMC application with data fulfilling its requirements. To prove the concept, a case study has been performed and the results of this study show that the application using the SDDS can keep a benchmark power system stable even when original data link QoS performance does not meet the application's requirements. The paper also contains a presentation of the SDDS prototype platform under development as a part of the ongoing research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Adaptive data link configuration, POD, QoS, Stateful Data Delivery Service, WAMC applications
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186944 (URN)10.1016/j.segan.2016.04.001 (DOI)000377407500017 ()2-s2.0-84963856938 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160524

Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
5. Adaptive Cyber-Security Scheme Incorporating QoS Requirements for WAMC Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Cyber-Security Scheme Incorporating QoS Requirements for WAMC Applications
2018 (English)In: Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC2018), IEEE conference proceedings, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2018
Keywords
Adaptive Scheme, Cyber-Security, Quality of Service, Stateful Data Delivery Service, WAMC
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-230616 (URN)000447282400215 ()
Conference
20th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC2018), 11th-15th June 2018, Dublin, Ireland
Note

QC 2018-06-25

Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved

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1112131415161715 of 17
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