Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
On integrated modularization for situated product configuration
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Road transports face increasing societal challenges with respect to emissions, safety, and traffic congestion, as well as business challenges. Truck automation, e.g. self-driving trucks may be utilized to address some of these issues. Autonomous transport vehicles may be characterized as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). A drawback is that CPS significantly increase technical complexity and thus introduce new challenges to system architecting.

A product architecture is the interrelation between physical components and their function, i.e. their purpose. Product architectures can be categorized as being modular or integral. The main purpose of a modular architecture is to enable external variety and at the same time internal commonality. Products with a modular architecture are configured from predesigned building blocks, i.e. modules. A stable module, which is a carrier of main function(s) has standardized interfaces, is configured for company-specific reasons, which means it supports a company-specific (business) strategy.

In this thesis, the present state at the heavy vehicle manufacturer Scania, concerning product architecting, modularization, product description and configuration is investigated. Moreover, a new clustering based method for product modularization that integrates product complexity and company business strategies is proposed. The method is logically verified with multiple industrial cases, where the architecture of a heavy truck driveline is used as a test bench. The driveline contains synergistic configurations of mechanical, electrical and software technologies that are constituents of an automated  and/or semi-autonomous system, i.e. the driveline may be characterized as a CPS. The architecture is analyzed both from technical complexity and business strategy point of view. 

The presented research indicates that a structured methodology which supports the development of the product architecture is needed at Scania, to enable control of the increasing technical complexity in the Cyber-Physical Systems. Finally, configuration rules are identified to be highly important in order to successfully realize a modular product architecture. A drawback with this approach is that the solution space becomes hard to identify, therefore a complete and flexible product description methodology is essential. The results from the case studies indicate that clustering of a Product Architecture DSM may result in a modular architecture with significantly reduced complexity, but with clusters that contain conflicting module drivers. It is also identified that the new modularization methodology is capable of identifying and proposing reasonable module candidates that address product complexity as well as company-specific strategies. Furthermore, several case studies show that the proposed method can be used for analyzing and finding the explicit and/or implicit, technical as well as strategic, reasons behind the architecture of an existing product. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
STOCKHOLM: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. 40
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2019:4
Keywords [en]
Modularization, Product Description, Module, Product Structure, Product Architecture, Cyber-Physical System
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244475ISBN: 978-91-7873-115-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-244475DiVA, id: diva2:1291014
Presentation
2019-03-14, B242, Brinellvägen 83, STOCKHOLM, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An Approach to Integrated Modularization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Approach to Integrated Modularization
2016 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2016, p. 613-617Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A modular architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety (to the customers) and internal commonality (to the manufacturing organization). A common view is that a module should be a physical and functional building block, with well-defined and standardized interfaces between modules, and that it should be chosen for company specific reasons. Existing methodologies, such as Modular Function Deployment with the Modular Indication Matrix (MIM) representation of identified company-specific module drivers, can be used to assist the task to identify modules. Other approaches, such as clustering of the Design Structure Matrix product representation, may be used to identify modules from a technical complexity point of view. A new methodology for product modularization that integrates technical complexity and company strategies is proposed in this paper. The core of the presented methodology is to adapt the component-DSM with MIM-strategies, before clustering this hybrid representation with the previously presented IGTA++ clustering algorithm. The proposed methodology is exemplified and logically verified with an industrial test rig modularization case. The modular test rig architecture chosen with the new methodology is shown to have 53% less complexity, as defined by Pugh, compared with the original architecture, and it could potentially reduce the risk of design mistakes, and reduce the development time by up to 70%. It is also estimated that it would be possible to reuse up to 57% of the modules, in future test rig redesign projects, which indicates potentially large savings in cost and development time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
DSM clustering, Modularization, Product architecture, System design, Design, Modular construction, Product design, Systems analysis, Design Structure Matrices, Hybrid representations, Manufacturing organizations, Modular function deployments, Modularizations, Standardized interfaces, Clustering algorithms
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195464 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.04.152 (DOI)000387666600103 ()2-s2.0-84986631492 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th CIRP Design Conference, 2016, 15 June 2016 through 17 June 2016
Note

QC 20161128

Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
2. A Hunt For the Hidden Reasons Behind a Product Architecture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hunt For the Hidden Reasons Behind a Product Architecture
2018 (English)In: DS 96: The 20th International DSM Conference, The Design Society , 2018, p. 93-103Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A modular product architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. In this paper, a heavy duty modular gearbox architecture is represented and analyzed. In focus is re-engineering of hidden technical complexity and business strategy concerns behind an existing product architecture. The architecture of the investigated gearbox is represented and analyzed with a Product Architecture DSM and the Integrated Modularization Method (IMM). Furthermore, a Cluster Match Matrix (CMM) is proposed as a means to compare multiple clustering results. The case study indicates that the IMM methodology and CMM can be used for analyzing and finding the explicit and/or implicit reason for a targeted existing product architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Design Society, 2018
Keywords
Product Architecting, Integrated Modularization, DSM, MFD, IMM
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244473 (URN)2-s2.0-85060640270 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 20th International DSM Conference
Note

QC 20190306

Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
3. Product Architecture Transition in a Modular Cyber-Physical Truck
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product Architecture Transition in a Modular Cyber-Physical Truck
2018 (English)In: ASME 2018 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, ASME Press, 2018, Vol. Volume 1A, article id DETC2018-85364Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A modular product architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. In this paper, we propose a new clustering based method for product modularization that integrates product complexity and company business strategies. The proposed method is logically verified by a studied industrial case, where the architecture of a heavy truck driveline is analyzed in terms of how it has evolved over a couple of decades, due to changed business strategies and the evolution of new technology. The presented case indicates that the new methodology is capable of identifying and proposing reasonable module candidates that address product complexity as well as company-specific strategies. Furthermore, the case study clearly shows that the business strategic reasons for a specific architecture can be found by analyzing how sensitive the clusters are to changes in the module drivers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2018
Keywords
Business Strategy, Clustering, Complexity, DSM, Integrated Modularization, MFD, Product Architecting
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244470 (URN)10.1115/DETC2018-85364 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056863711 (Scopus ID)9780791851722 (ISBN)
Conference
38th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
4. The hunt for proper relation weights in product architecture clustering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The hunt for proper relation weights in product architecture clustering
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A common view is that a module should be a functional building block, with well-defined and standardized interfaces between the modules, and that it should be chosen for company specific reasons. A modular product architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. Today, multiple modularisation methodologies exist to support the highly complex task to identify module candidates in the product architecting phase. One methodology is Modular Function Deployment with the Modular Indication Matrix (MIM) representation of company-specific module drivers. Other methodologies, such as Design Structure Matrix (DSM) clustering, may be used to identify modules from a technical complexity point of view. In this paper, the performance of the newly proposed Integrated Modularization Methodology (IMM), which is based on clustering of a strategically adapted DSM, is conceptually verified. The core of the IMM is to transfer company specific module drivers from the MIM into the component-DSM, before clustering this hybrid representation. A re-architecting industrial case, where a truck manufacturer with a unique business strategy had to redesign parts of its modular gearbox architecture to also become a First-Tier OEM-supplier to another large truck manufacturer, is used as test bench. Reverse engineering of the investigated gearbox architecture indicates that the current modules are most likely not only based on technical complexity concerns. They are rather derived from different types of business strategic aspects, e.g. outsourcing. The study also indicates that the IMM is capable of identifying clusters without strategic conflicts, and with the most similar result to the analysed architecture, which is assumed to be based on expert judgements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Design Society, 2018
Keywords
Product Architecting, Modularization, Integrated Modularization, DSM, MFD
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244472 (URN)2-s2.0-85057192599 (Scopus ID)978-91-7685-185-2 (ISBN)
Conference
NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018
Note

QC 20190412

Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
5. Product architecture transition in an evolving multi-brand organisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product architecture transition in an evolving multi-brand organisation
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, Glasgow, 2018, p. 929-940Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A modular architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. A methodology for product modularization that integrates complexity and strategies is proposed and logically verified with an industrial case from the heavy truck business area. The case study indicates that the new methodology is capable of identifying and proposing reasonable module candidates that address product complexity as well as company specific strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glasgow: , 2018
Keywords
Product architecture, Design Structure Matrix (DSM), Variant management, Characteristics and properties
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244469 (URN)10.21278/idc.2018.0366 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054955972 (Scopus ID)9789537738594 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2018; Dubrovnik; Croatia; 21 May 2018 through 24 May
Note

QC 20190316

Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
6. Modularisation and product description: a review and a focused case
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modularisation and product description: a review and a focused case
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This technical report contains the results from the first step of a Ph.D. project in the field of modularisation and product description, conducted by the author at Scania CV AB in Södertälje and at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.Scania is one of the leading truck, bus and engine manufacturers in the world and is today a part of the Volkswagen (VW) Group AG, which is one of the world’s largest vehicle manufacturing groups. Scania has a successful history in vehicle modularisation and claims it is one of the most important reasons why they are a leading company today. Scania also has a unique way of describing the modular product in their generic product structure, in order to efficiently describe the many product variants. However, the Scania product has over the last years been developed into a mechatronic product with embedded software in focus, demanding the product description as well as the modularisation methodology to support this new dimension. Collaboration within the Volkswagen group also makes it even more important to understand and explain “The Scania Way” of modularising and describing the product.The purpose of the study presented in this technical reports was to investigate the present state at Scania, concerning product architecting, modularisation, product description and configuration. Hence, this report contains a literature review, a case study based on semi-structured interviews, as well as an architecture analysis of some main Scania components. The analysed main components were chosen to both include mechanical, electrical and software disciplines, in order to highlight some of the challenges when modularising and describing a high-performing product configured from heterogeneous technologies that are developed and managed multidisciplinary. Another purpose of the report was to answer the research questions; what is the present state at Scania, regarding product architecture and management of product data? And what are the unique properties in the modular product architecture at Scania and how are they used, developed and maintained?The result of the analysis indicates that the nomenclature needs to be further defined at Scania, preferably with a definition which is consistent in order to reduce the risk of confusion and design mistakes during future collaborations. Scania strives to maximise the number of product variants (external variety), while keeping the number of technical solutions low (internal commonality). Hence, a structured methodology which supports the development of the product architecture is clearly needed at Scania, in order to make future collaborations as efficient and successful as possible, and to control the increasing technical complexity in the future Cyber-Physical Systems. Finally, configuration rules are identified to be highly important in order to successfully realise a modular product architecture, since the architecture normally will not be fully uncoupled. A drawback with this approach is that the solution space (i.e. all valid configurations) becomes extremely hard to identify, therefore an advanced product description methodology is essential.

Publisher
p. 77
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2018:5
Keywords
Modularisation, Product Description, Module, Product Structure, Product Architecture
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236093 (URN)
Note

QC 20181019

Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1802 kB)45 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1802 kBChecksum SHA-512
771b24e42c777cc5bfa7408d2c2e3cb6b7b6c674b70371a4e1a152dd774d0d37570a92dd5894aecd9415fbca59ecf4fa0be52775475b2975e691ed1b6ad32efd
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Williamsson, David
By organisation
Machine Design (Dept.)
Other Mechanical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 45 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 305 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf