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Disaggregated Data Centers: Challenges and Tradeoffs
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). (lin)
Ericsson Research, Sweden.
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6704-6554
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Resource utilization of modern data centers is significantly limited by the mismatch between the diversity of the resources required by running applications and the fixed amount of hardwired resources (e.g., number of central processing unit CPU cores, size of memory) in the server blades. In this regard, the concept of function disaggregation is introduced, where the integrated server blades containing all types of resources are replaced by the resource blades including only one specific function. Therefore, disaggregated data centers can offer high flexibility for resource allocation and hence their resource utilization can be largely improved. In addition, introducing function disaggregation simplifies the system upgrade, allowing for a quick adoption of new generation components in data centers. However, the communication between different resources faces severe problems in terms of latency and transmission bandwidth required. In particular,the CPU-memory interconnects in fully disaggregated data centers require ultra-low latency and ultra-high transmission bandwidth in order to prevent performance degradation for running applications. Optical fiber communication is a promising technique to offer high capacity and low latency, but it is still very challenging for the state-of-the-art optical transmission technologies to meet the requirements of the fully disaggregated data centers. In this paper, different levels of function disaggregation are investigated. For the fully disaggregated data centers, two architectural options are presented, where optical interconnects are necessary for CPU-memory communications. We review the state-of-the-art optical transmission technologies and carry out performance assessment when employing them to support function disaggregation in data centers. The results reveal that function disaggregation does improve the efficiency of resource usage in the data centers, although the bandwidth provided by the state-of-the-art optical transmission technologies is not always sufficient for the fully disaggregated data centers. It calls for research in optical transmission to fully utilize the advantages of function disaggregation in data centers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244839OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-244839DiVA, id: diva2:1292615
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Optical Interconnects for Next Generation Data Centers: Architecture Design and Resource Allocation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical Interconnects for Next Generation Data Centers: Architecture Design and Resource Allocation
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current data center architectures based on blade servers and elec- tronic packet switches face several problems, e.g., limited resource utilization, high power consumption and cost, when handling the rapidly growing of data traffic. Optical networks offering ultra-high capacity and requiring low energy consumption are considered as a good option to address these problems. This thesis presents new data center architectures based on optical interconnects and transmissions, and evaluates performance by extensive simulations.

The first main contribution of the thesis is to introduce a passive optical top-of-rack interconnect (POTORI) architecture. The data plane of POTORI mainly consists of passive components to interconnect the servers within the rack. Using the passive components makes it possible to significantly reduce power consumption while achieving high reliability in a cost-efficient way. In addition, the POTORI’s control plane is based on a centralized controller, which is responsible for coordinating the communications among the servers in the rack. A cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol and a dy- namic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm are designed for the POTORI to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmis- sion inside the rack. Simulation results show that under realistic DC traffic scenarios, the POTORI with the proposed DBA algorithm is able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers.

The second main contribution of the thesis is to investigate rack-scale disaggregated data center (DDC) architecture for improving resource utiliza- tion. In contrast to the traditional DC with blade servers that integrate various types of resources (e.g., central processing unit (CPU), memory) in a chassis, the rack-scale DDC contains fully decoupled resources held on differ- ent blades, referred to as resource blades. The resource blades are required to be interconnected within the rack by an ultra-high bandwidth optical in- terconnect through the optical interfaces (OIs). A resource allocation (RA) algorithm is proposed to efficiently schedule the resources in the DDC for virtual machine requests. Results show that with sufficient bandwidth on the OIs, the rack-scale DDC with the proposed RA algorithm can achieve 20% higher resource utilization and make 30% more revenue comparing to the traditional DC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 61
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:18
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244840 (URN)978-91-7873-108-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-29, Ka-Sal B (Sal Peter Weissglas), Electrum, Kungl Tekniska högskolan, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved

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