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Automated Support for the Architecting of Distributed Embedded Systems: Methods and Analysis for Industrial Adoption
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2649-5921
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The architecture design complexity of modern embedded systems, such as in the automotive domain, is growing due to the rapidly evolved functionalities, the increasing amount of interactions between functions and computation nodes, and the stringent extra-functional requirements. Architecture design is crucial since it affects nontrivial system properties such as safety, cost, performance of functionalities and also the development time. An important enabler to deal with this complexity is to provide computer aided architecture design. This thesis focuses on such support for Design Space Exploration (DSE), relying on a model-based design (MBD) environment.

The goal of this thesis is to improve the industrial adoption of DSE methods to facilitate the architecture design of distributed embedded systems in the automotive industry. The main contributions of this thesis are as follows: (1) Applying architecture recovery in the automotive industry to extract architecture models from legacy ECU source code. The recovered architecture models can be used to facilitate system understanding, to verify the software implementation against its specification and also to enable DSE for architecture design. (2) A systematic gap analysis was conducted between the state-of-the-art DSE methods and the industrial needs, through literature studies and interviews with experienced system architects. Identified gaps are analyzed from the following perspectives: Architecting scenarios, architectural decisions, quality attributes, cost model, procurement strategy, system variability and functional safety. (3) A new problem formulation was proposed to reduce the design space by utilizing the features of evolutionary architecting and the AUTOSAR layered architecture. (4) In order to enhance the flexibility of the DSE methods by enabling the customizability of the architectural constraints, an automatic transformation method is proposed to translate formally described architectural constraints into the corresponding mixed integer linear programming(MILP) constraints, commonly used for DSE. (5) This thesis also investigates the potential impacts of vehicular communication on the future architecture of automotive embedded systems from the timing perspective through a case study to enable a commercial truck with cooperative driving functionalities. The receiving bias problem was identified during the case study and effective architectural solutions were proposed. The case study also showed that the adoption of vehicular communication would not have significant architectural impacts in terms of timing.

Abstract [sv]

Moderna inbyggda system blir alltmer intelligenta och uppkopplade, och därmed alltmer komplexa med ökade krav på funktionella och icke-funktionella egenskaper. Arkitekturdesign behöver alltså spela en ännu viktigare roll i att bedöma systemegenskaper såsom säkerhet, kostnad, funktionalitet och utvecklingstid. En viktig förutsättning för att hantera denna komplexitet är att tillhandahålla modeller samt en modellbaserad systemutvecklingsmiljö (MBD). Denna avhandling fokuserar på sådant stöd med betoning på utforskningen av designrymden, ”Design Space Exploration” (DSE).

Målet med denna avhandling är att underlätta den industriella tillämpningen av DSE-metoder för arkitekturdesign av distribuerade inbyggda system inom bilindustrin. Huvudbidragen är följande: (1) en metod för automatisk extrahering av systemarkitekturmodeller från befintlig ECU-källkod för en ökad design-återanvändning inom bilindustrin. De återskapade arkitekturmodellerna kan användas för att stödja systemförståelse, för att verifiera programmets implementering mot dess specifikation och även för att möjliggöra DSE för arkitekturdesign. (2) En systematisk analys av tillgängliga DSE-metoder och industriella behov baserad på litteraturstudier och intervjuer av erfarna systemarkitekter. Identifierade brister analyserades ur följandeper spektiv: Arkitektur-scenarier, designbeslut, kvalitetsattributer, kostnadsmodell, optimeringsstrategi, systemvariation och funktionell säkerhet. (3) En metod för en förfinad problemformulering för effektiv utforskningen av designrymden genom att analysera arkitekturens evolution och tillämpa AUTOSAR referensarkitektur. (4) en metod för automatisk översättning av relevanta designparameter och preferens till motsvarande matematiska formulering i MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programing) för DSE, vilken medför ökad flexibilitet i praktisk användning av DSE-metoderna. (5) Denna avhandling undersöker också den potentiella inverkan av kommunikationslösningar på systems funktionella och icke-funktionella egenskaper genom en fallstudie för att möjliggöra kooperativa körfunktioner hos en kommersiell lastbil. Avvikelserna identifierades och effektiva arkitektoniska lösningar föreslogs. Fallstudien visade att fordonskommunikation inte skulle ha betydande arkitektoniska effekter på tidtagning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 50
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2017:10
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design; Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249626ISBN: 978-91-7729-432-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-249626DiVA, id: diva2:1304829
Public defence
2017-06-14, Gladan, Brinellvägen 85, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190415

Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-14 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems
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2014 (English)In: 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014 - Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 379-382Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The importance and potential advantages with a comprehensive product architecture description are well described in the literature. However, developing such a description takes additional resources, and it is difficult to maintain consistency with evolving implementations. This paper presents an approach and industrial experience which is based on architecture recovery from source code at truck manufacturer Scania CV AB. The extracted representation of the architecture is presented in several views and verified on CAN signal level. Lessons learned are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Keywords
architecture recovery, automotive industry, distributed embedded systems, software engineering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145509 (URN)10.1109/CSMR-WCRE.2014.6747199 (DOI)000349240500047 ()2-s2.0-84898405841 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-3752-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 1st Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014; Antwerp; Belgium; 3 February 2014 through 6 February 2014
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20140521

Available from: 2014-05-21 Created: 2014-05-21 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
2. Design-Space Reduction for Architectural Optimization of Automotive Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design-Space Reduction for Architectural Optimization of Automotive Embedded Systems
2015 (English)In: High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conferen on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, , p. 7p. 1103-1109Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A key decision for the synthesis of automotiveembedded systems is the allocation of application softwarecomponents to ECUs. Design Space Exploration (DSE) supportsthe decision by automatically characterizing and evaluating alarge number of possible design alternatives, and thereby suggestingthe optimal ones. A primary challenge for applying DSEmethods to support this decision is to reduce the computationtime of the DSE process while maintaining the generality andoptimality. This paper exploits legacy system architectures andthe AUTOSAR standard to preemptively reduce the design space,because both artifacts limit the flexibility of certain designvariables. A new DES formulation incorporating the constraintsof the legacy system architectures and the AUTOSAR standardis proposed in this paper. Computation result shows a largereduction of the computation time comparing to traditionalmodeling and formulations. The scalability of our method is alsoanalyzed by testing it on a set of random problem instances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015. p. 7
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177585 (URN)10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.298 (DOI)000380408100182 ()2-s2.0-84961717465 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Softwareand Systems (ICESS), New York, August 24-26
Note

QC 20151201

Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
3. Formulating Customized Specifications for Resource Allocation Problem of Distributed Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formulating Customized Specifications for Resource Allocation Problem of Distributed Embedded Systems
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are plentiful attempts for increasing the efficiency, generality and optimality of the Design Space Exploration (DSE) algorithms for resource allocation problems of distributed embedded systems. Most contemporary approaches formulate DSE as an optimization or SAT problem, based on a set of predefined constraints. In this way, the end users lose the flexibility to guide and customize the exploration based on specifics of their actual problem. Besides, during the design of the DSE algorithms, manual formulation is time consuming and error-prone. To solve these problems, 1) a formal representation is defined for capturing customized architectural constraints based on a combination of propositional logic and Pseudo-Boolean (PB) formulas; 2) A process is designed to automatically translate these architectural constrains into corresponding Integer Linear Programming (ILP) constraints, commonly used for DSE. The translation process is also optimized to create ILP formulation with less introduced variables so as to reduce computation time. The results show that the generated constraints correctly reflect the corresponding specification with decent efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Series
ICCAD-IEEE ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, ISSN 1933-7760
Keywords
DSE, Resource Allocation and Constraint Language
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199778 (URN)10.1145/2966986.2967042 (DOI)000390297800076 ()2-s2.0-85000916308 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-4466-1 (ISBN)
Conference
35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), NOV 07-10, 2016, Austin, TX
Note

QC 20170120

Available from: 2017-01-20 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
4. A Case Study on Achieving Fair Data Age Distribution in Vehicular Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study on Achieving Fair Data Age Distribution in Vehicular Communications
Show others...
2017 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 23RD IEEE REAL-TIME AND EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (RTAS 2017) / [ed] Parmer, G, IEEE , 2017, p. 307-317Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In vehicular communication protocol stacks, received messages may not always be decoded successfully due to the complexity of the decoding functions, the uncertainty of the communication load and the limited computation resources. Even worse, an improper implementation of the protocol stack may cause an unfair data age distribution among all the communicating vehicles (the receiving bias problem). In such cases, some vehicles are almost locked out of the vehicular communication, causing potential safety risk in scenarios such as intersection passing. To our knowledge, this problem has not been systematically studied in the fields of vehicular communication and intelligent transport systems (ITS). This paper analyzes the root of the receiving bias problem and proposes architectural solutions to balance data age distribution. Simulation studies based on commercial devices demonstrate the effectiveness of these solutions. In addition, our system has been successfully applied during the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge, where complicated scenarios involving platooning maneuvering and intersection coordination were conducted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, ISSN 1545-3421
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215487 (URN)10.1109/RTAS.2017.7 (DOI)000411195100034 ()2-s2.0-85021802444 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-5269-1 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), APR 18-21, 2017, Pittsburgh, PA
Note

QC 20171013

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
5. Architecture exploration for distributed embedded systems: A gap analysis in automotive domain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecture exploration for distributed embedded systems: A gap analysis in automotive domain
Show others...
2017 (English)In: 2017 12th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2017 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7993377Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A large body of work can be found in literature on Design Space Exploration (DSE) methods for distributed embedded system architecting (DESA). However, almost none of these methods is successfully adopted in automotive industry. To clarify the reasons, this paper 1) analyzes the current state of the art (SOTA) on DSE methods for DESA through a systematic literature study, focusing on the assumed architecting process and concerns; 2) investigates the state of practice (SOP) on DESA in the automotive industry through a literature study and interviews with experienced system architects from five different automotive manufacturers; and 3) analyzes the gap between SOTA and SOP, and thereby discusses potential improvements of DSE methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Automotive industry, Systems analysis
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214377 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2017.7993377 (DOI)000427108300021 ()2-s2.0-85028562956 (Scopus ID)9781538631669 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2017, Ecole Nationale superieure d'Electrotechnique, d'Electronique, d'Informatique et des Telecommunications (INP-ENSEEIHT)Toulouse, France, 14 June 2017 through 16 June 2017
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-06260 ; CAT311
Note

QC 20170912

Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved

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